Who is the architect of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg?
Who? This question is often asked by tourists who first came to the northern capital of Russia. And which of the Winter Palace? What is now at the corner of the Palace Embankment and the Admiralty Passage? Or one of those Winter Palaces that historically preceded this building? Let's see and try to find answers to all these questions.
The very first Winter Palace belonged to Peter I, but it is not mentioned in the general numbering of all the Winter Palaces. The palace was located on the Admiralty Island and was wooden. His appearance was not preserved even in the old engravings of Alexei Zubov - the very first Russian master who captured the original St. Petersburg in his works.
In 1711, in the same place for Peter I, Domenico Trezzini erected the first stone Winter Palace instead of the wooden one. He opened his facade along the channel, now called the Winter Canal.The construction of this palace became necessary in connection with the marriage of the king to Martha Skavronskaya, the future empress Catherine I.
Second Winter Palace
Peter I was not very comfortable living in the same house with his family, given the rhythm of imperial life. In addition, the monarch preferred to work in silence. In this connection, in 1716, George Mattarnovi designed a palace for the emperor, but after his death, the architects changed the ideas presented several times.
Peter I entrusted the construction of the Winter Chambers to the French architect Jean-Baptiste Leblon, who had come to St. Petersburg to work for hire, to build the Stone Winter Chambers near the Bridal Weddings, right here on the banks of the Winter Canal, but closer to the Neva. The new stone palace was turned to the Neva, the main avenue of the city. However, the results of Leblond for some reason did not satisfy Peter I, so the restructuring of the palace and the completion of its creation again lay on Domenico Trezzini’s shoulders.
Third Winter Palace
The palace, rebuilt for Peter I Trezzini, is considered to be the third. The main construction work covers the period from 1718 to 1719.At the same time, the Palace of Trezzini became much larger than Mattarnovi had originally intended, but included as part of the new building what had been designed by its predecessor. This part became the western building of the second Winter Palace, and the triumphal arch connected it with the similar Eastern building. The arch had three spans and was decorated with sculptures, which allegorically represented the victory of the Russian army in the Northern War with Sweden.
Fourth Winter Palace
This palace is related to the Empress Anna Ioannovna. He was erected by her decree also on the Admiralteysky island, only downstream of the Neva and not from scratch. It was built on the site of the mansion of General Apraksin.Architect Winterthe palace of Anna Ioannovna became a young Italian master Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, who was just beginning his career then.
After the construction of this structure, the previous Winter Palace was used as an economic building. During the reign of Catherine II, on its foundations and the remains of the facades Giacomo Quarenghi would build the building of the Hermitage Theater.
After the ascension to the throne of Elizabeth Petrovna Rastrelli -the architect who created the Winter Palace,repeatedly expanded the building: created the interiors of the Crimson and Amber Cabinets, added an additional two-story building from the Admiralty, a chapel, a soap room and other rooms.
Fifth Temporary Winter Palace
Elizaveta Petrovna did not want to live in the modest palace of her predecessor, in her understanding. Raised for the French throne, no longer young Elizabeth preferred luxury and grace, refinement and sophistication in everything. She decides to rebuild the Winter Palace of Anna Ioannovna and entrusts this work to her court architect, all the same F. B. Rastrelli. But where to stay at the time of construction of the imperial court?
To solve this problem, Rastrelli erects for the Empress a wooden palace, which at that time occupied a considerable territory: between Moika, Nevsky Prospect and the current Malaya Morskaya Street.
It was in this palace that Elizabeth spent all her subsequent years in fun, masquerades and balls. It is assumed that it was in the temporary Winter Palace that she first met the Fyodor Volkov Yaroslavl Theater, which later became the basis for the creation in 1756 of the Russian professional theater.
It is interesting that at the same time, when the sixth Winter Palace was being built, and Elizabeth lived in a temporary palace, another palace building was built on the other side of the Moika, intended for the barons Stroganovs. There is information that Elizabeth jealously watched the construction of the Stroganov Palace. After allarchitect of the Winter Palace - authorand the Stroganov mansion on the Moika embankment.
Sixth Winter Palace
Meanwhile, the sixth Winter Palace was also growing in its usual place. Only now it was built much longer than Stroganov. And ironically, Elizaveta Petrovna did not have time to enter it in such a way and did not have time - the empress died. His first owner was Emperor Peter III, who moved into an unfinished building. The whole square in front of the palace was littered with debris, and the monarch was already planning to receive ambassadors. You can’t refuse the ingenuity of the emperor: he ordered to declare to the whole of Petersburg that he gave everything that litters the square free of charge. And the square was cleaned one day.
The Elizabethan Winter Palace shone with the reflected light of European baroque and became one of the pearls of the Northern capital.Architect of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburgcreated a unique structure in the style of a mature Russian baroque. He successfully used the achievements of European architecture in combination with the peculiarities of the life of the Russian aristocracy and the climatic conditions of St. Petersburg.
Winter Palace of architect Rastrelli- one of the most impressive buildings of the city in size, as the length of its facades reaches two hundred meters, in the number of rooms, of which there are one thousand fifty seven, according to the richness of the decor.
The name of the architect of the Winter Palaceeven small children are well-known in St. Petersburg. And what do we know about this man?
Italian by birth, originally from Florence. Together with his father, the sculptor Bartolomeo Carlo, Rastrelli came to France, where his father tripled in the service of Louis XIV. When the king died, the Rastrelli family was left without a livelihood. With work in Europe, then it was bad, and Bartolomeo Carlo grasped the opportunity offered to him by Russia - he went to build a young Russian city under a contract.
The Rastrelli family came to the city on the Neva in 1716 for a period of three years of service at the court. Francesco helped his father to work on the projects for the construction of the Strelninsky Palace and the decoration of the mansions of Shafirov and Apraksin.The first individual work of the young talent was the palace of Cantemir. Then came the Manege for Biron between Nevsky Prospect, Moika and the present Bolshaya Morskaya Street, the Summer and Winter palaces in St. Petersburg, the palaces in the residence of Biron.
In 1738, Rastrelli was appointed chief architect. After the arrest of Biron in 1740, the architect designed the mansions for the German minister Minich and regent for the young emperor John Antonovich, his mother Anna Leopoldovna. After the coup of 1741, Elizabeth, who came to power, abolishes the title of Rastrelli. He fell into disgrace, but did not despair, because he knew: none of the other architects could not please the French woman. Soon he was again invited to the court and entrusted with the construction of the most important objects in the state - the imperial palaces.
Winter Palace as a historical and cultural monument
The architect of the Winter Palace made this building the highest building in those times in the city. In the plan, the building has the form of a closed quadrangle with a quadrangular courtyard and four facades that do not repeat each other in their form and decor.
Common in the design of facades - the division of its eaves into horizontal parts floor by floor. On the floors on the facades are columns and pilasters, which alternate with each other, creating a complex rhythmic basis: single, twin, beams. Openwork forged grates adorn the entrances to the courtyard. On the roof in the rhythm of the columns there is a huge number of sculptures and vases. The sculptures are made according to the drawings of Rastrelli Boumkhen himself. In some sources you can find information that they are hollow, in others - carved from Pudozhsky stone. A huge amount of gilding, stucco, castle stones above the windows, the dome of the palace church, gables and attics make the palace look unforgettable and elegant, even a little fabulous.