What is vertigo? Symptoms and treatment of the syndrome
Almost everyone at least once in his life faced with the phenomenon of dizziness. The causes of this condition can be abrupt changes in body position, physical or intellectual stress, fast driving, fear or excitement. Episodic dizziness is not dangerous, does not create particular inconvenience and passes by itself. But sometimes this phenomenon becomes pronounced and extremely negatively affects the physical condition.
Dizziness as a symptom: a characteristic and possible causes
Few have an idea of what the word "vertigo" means. In fact, this word indicates a state of dizziness and loss of balance. What is vertigo and what is characterized by? The one who is disturbed by this symptom feels the rotation of objects around him, sometimes even the whirling of his own body in space.A person loses stability, his coordination of movements is disturbed, he staggers when walking, in some cases, even falls.If the attacks of vertigo often recur, this indicates the influence of not external, but rather internal factors and the presence of a pathological process in the body.
So what kind of disturbances can cause dizziness? As the factors provoking the syndrome of vertigo, you can list the following:
- Incorrect functioning of the vestibular apparatus.
- CNS pathologies (tumors, diseases of the cerebral cortex).
- Violations of the auditory nerve.
- Cardiovascular pathology.
- Diseases of the spine.
Often, attacks of vertigo are accompanied by deterioration of vision and hearing, pallor, excessive sweating, acceleration or slowing of heart rhythm, darkening of the eyes.
What diseases are accompanied by dizziness?
Probably everyone who has learned what vertigo is will be interested in finding out which pathologies this feature indicates.
So, dizziness can be triggered by the following diseases:
- Meniere's disease.
- Inflammation and mechanical damage to the inner ear.
- Head injuries
In order to get rid of dizziness, you need a comprehensive examination by a general practitioner, an ENT specialist, and an expert on diseases of the vital systemologist. After passing the examinations and the necessary analyzes, it will be possible to establish the exact causes of the appearance of vertigo and decide on the treatment.
Types of dizziness
In general, this symptom indicates the presence of diseases of the brain and cerebellum, in which nerve signals about the position of a person in space are interpreted incorrectly.
Continuing to talk about what vertigo, it should be said that there are two types of this pathology:
- Central dizziness. Signs of this type of vertigo are hardly noticeable and are constantly present. Such dizziness is accompanied by cardiac rhythm disturbances, hyperhidrosis, nausea. The causes of this pathology are epileptic seizures, tumors, mechanical damage, disorders of cerebral circulation, as well as hemicrania.
- Peripheral vertigo. It is characterized by pronounced symptoms lasting more than two days: unsteady gait, impaired motor coordination, cramping abdominal pain, tinnitus, accelerated or slowed heartbeat, vomiting, impaired hearing and vision.This phenomenon occurs due to pathological processes in the inner ear, side effects of some drugs, inflammation of the ear, lack of blood supply to the brain, and diseases of the cerebellum.
Vertigo coordination disorders
Sometimes dizziness leads to the fact that it is difficult for a person not only to navigate, but also to move in space. In this case, talk about the phenomenon of vestibulo-atactic syndrome. It occurs as a result of pathologies such as hydrocephalus, atrophic changes in the brain, high blood pressure, osteochondrosis. In this disease, in addition to vertigo, symptoms such as the appearance of spots before the eyes, instability when walking, nausea, disorder of attention and coordination of movements are observed.A person has a bad headache, he feels ringing in his ears. In some cases, the patient can not move at all and even falls.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Recognizing vestibulo-atactic syndrome is not easy. To determine the diagnosis, the doctor recommends that the patient undergo the following types of examinations:
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and spine.
- X-ray skull.
- Laboratory tests of blood and urine.
- Evaluation of the blood supply to the brain.
- Samples to identify the disease (they are conducted by a neurologist to understand how well the patient is in balance).
In general, in the absence of adverse factors and comorbidities, the syndrome is easily treatable. To treat it, they use drugs that reduce cholesterol, drugs that improve blood circulation and brain metabolism, and drugs with antioxidant effects. In some cases, surgery is performed to correct the symptoms (surgery on the arteries of the spine). It allows you to avoid vasoconstriction and improve blood flow to the brain, which leads to a significant improvement in the patient's condition.
Meniere's disease: causes and signs
This is a pathology of the inner ear, which is accompanied by attacks of vertigo, hearing impairment and tinnitus. The disease was first described by a French doctor in the nineteenth century. Today it is diagnosed most often in people between the ages of twenty-five and fifty years old, mainly among those who are engaged in mental work.
What is Meniere's syndrome and vertigo and why does this phenomenon occur?
The reasons that cause the development of the disease can be:
- Mechanical damage to the head.
- Infectious diseases of the ear.
- Malformations and injuries of the organs of hearing.
- Hormonal disorders.
- Violations of the outflow of fluid in the inner ear, the accumulation of lymph.
- Work in hazardous industries.
- Scars in the cavity of the inner ear, remaining after surgery.
Meniere's disease is characterized by paroxysmal over. As a rule, it is manifested by noise or tinnitus, pain inside the ear, hearing loss, loss of balance, intestinal upset and vomiting, abdominal cramps, increased heart rate, pallor and sweating. Often the coordination of movements during an attack is so disturbed that the patient falls. This is very dangerous, as it can get serious mechanical damage. The disease itself is not fatal. But it leads to a significant decrease in hearing on one, and sometimes on both ears, and in severe cases - to complete deafness.
Diagnosis of Meniere's disease
If there is a suspicion that the patient has this pathology, the doctor conducts the following examinations:
- Evaluation of the functioning of the auditory ossicles and muscles inside the ear.
- The study of the auditory nerve.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
- Determination of the amount of fluid in the cavity of the inner ear.
Of course, paroxysmal dizziness can be a sign not only of Meniere's disease. Indicates the syndrome of vertigo on the symptoms of many pathologies, so you need a thorough examination of the patient.
Unfortunately, at the moment, Meniere's disease is incurable. But therapy can improve the patient’s condition and avoid complications (for example, deafness).
Treatment includes taking antihistamines, antipsychotics, antiemetic drugs, vasodilators. These funds can be used at home, as prescribed by a doctor. The patient is hospitalized only with severe vomiting, when there is a threat of dehydration. Meniere's disease is also treated with injections. At the same time, antibiotics and hormones are injected into the cavity of the inner ear. Sometimes the doctor recommends surgery (removal of excess fluid). This method, as well as injections, greatly reduces hearing, the patient may even completely deaf. But these measures can significantly improve the patient's condition and stop the development of pathology.A patient with a diagnosis of Meniere's syndrome is recommended to fully relax, stop smoking and alcohol, do not overeat, include more foods high in potassium (baked potatoes, oranges, bananas) in the diet.
Vertigo syndrome: treatment of folk remedies
Such a symptom as dizziness is extremely unpleasant, but you can get rid of it at home. To do this, use ginkgo biloba powder, which improves blood supply to the brain, as well as ginger infusion. As a means of traditional medicine, it is also advised to use fruit and vegetable juices (beetroot, pomegranate), decoctions of mint and lemon balm, linden flowers, algae powder. It is recommended to add some garlic in food and to include honey in your daily diet.
But we must remember that dizziness is not an independent disease, but only a sign. With the help of folk remedies you can get rid of the attacks, but not from their causes. Having an idea of what vertigo is and what pathologies it provokes, most people will probably prefer to consult a specialist and get tested before they treat a symptom.