What is the budget?
In each system unit that hasthe formed structure and the organization, there is a budget. What is the budget? A budget is a scheme of expenses and incomes of a certain person, business, family or state, which is approved strictly for a certain period of time, from one year or more. Budget is an important concept that has been studied for a long time by such science as finance.
What is the state budget? First of all, this is the most important document, which consists of a number of financial estimates of various departments, services and government programs. It is in it that those needs are determined that are subject to satisfaction at the expense of the money of the state treasury. Also, the budget indicates the main sources and expected revenues to the state treasury. The state's activities to review, create, formulate and approve a budget are called budgetary processes.
The budgetary system of Russia has the following levels:
- Federal budget;
- Regional budgets (budgets of RF subjects);
- Local budgets (budgets of municipalities).
Cash service in the implementation of budgets, according to the Budget Code of the Russian Federation is carried out by such body as the Treasury.
What is the budget surplus? Sometimes it happens that budget revenues, planned in advance, far exceed its costs. This state is called the budget surplus. However, there is also the opposite situation, when expenses exceed revenues. This is called a budget deficit. This phenomenon in each state has a special level and if the deficit exceeds this figure, the representative body makes a decision on the application of the mechanism of cost reduction permitted by the legislation. This procedure is called sequestration.
The totality of legal norms that governthe relations arising in the formation, use and distribution of the budget are called fiscal law. The main provision of this law is that no tax can be imposed without the consent of the country's parliament. It is the implementation of the budget law that allows the people's representation to participate directly in the governance of the state.
As for Russia, here every yeara bill is issued that contains a pre-calculated budget of expenditures and revenues of the state. It is drawn up by the Ministry of Finance. The very process of drawing up this document is called budget planning. After that, the bill is brought for revision and clarification to the Government of the Russian Federation, and then comes to the State Duma for consideration. There it is considered in three readings. If the bill is rejected on the first reading by the State Duma, a commission will be created, which will include representatives of the Federation Council, the State Duma and the Government of the Russian Federation. After the State Duma, the budget bill passes to the Federation Council. The final stage is the signing of the draft law by the President of the Russian Federation.
In the case when the budget is not approved on timeParliament or, when the president is vetoed on the budget, there comes the so-called budget crisis. The state budget is prepared for a year and a planned two-year period. In Russia, the fiscal year usually starts from the first of January, in other countries it can be different.
Types of budgets
There are the following types of budgets:
- the budget, which is drawn up from the bottom up, that is, it provides for the collection of necessary budget information from its executors to managers;
- budget, which is drawn from the top down, that is,he requires the management to properly understand the main features of the organization, as well as the ability to create a realistic forecast for a certain period.
Budgets can be divided into:
- Short-term and long-term;
- Static and flexible;
- Budgets with zero level and succession.
- Budgets with a time period.
The structure of the budget clearly describes what the budget is composed of, namely:
- distribution of responsibility between thedifferent divisions. The articles forming the budget are specified, and then the structural units begin to work as their own specifying article, and with the general rule;
- distribution among structural divisionsresponsibility, that is, the articles forming the budget are specified, after which the structural units can work with both a social article and a general rule;
- the formation of total costs and revenues, that is, they form a hierarchy of articles that is convenient enough to consider different values;
- formation of the general budget of money resources, that is in the budget there are articles which concern the general movement of money masses.
Now consider what is consolidatedbudget. Usually they are called a general set of budgets, which is used in analysis, calculation and forecasting. Consolidated budget in Russia is the Federal Budget and Consolidated budgets of the subjects without budgets of state off-budget funds.
Family as a small organizational structurealso has its own budget. Consider what the family budget is. They are called the planning of family expenses and incomes, which are made for a month. Sometimes, ideally, income and expenses are determined one year in advance.
After the basic types were consideredbudgets, you can easily say what the budget means. In any of the above cases, they were the amount of income and expenses approved by the authorized body. No structural unit can be formed without a yudjet. An optimally formed budget is one of the signs of a modern state.