What is elective at school? Elective course. Difference elektivogo from elective
Modernization of domestic school education has led to the emergence of a new form of education. The elective course, which has appeared at the main and upper levels of education, is mandatory. His student chooses according to their interests and creative possibilities.
In 2002, the Russian Federation adopted the Concept of profile education at the senior level (10-11 grade), approved by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. It was during this period that elective courses appeared in individual academic subjects, as well as interdisciplinary courses.
What documents are used in specialized education in Russian schools? Electives, electives are created with the following documents:
- Federal Basic Curriculum (2004).
- Concepts of modernization of domestic education.
- Orders of the Government of the Russian Federation from 2001.
In Russia, a special information and legal framework was created for elective courses. It consists of the following documents:
- an information letter about the organization of elective courses in specialized education.
- Appendix to the letter of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation on the introduction of special pre-profile training of schoolchildren.
- recommendations on the creation of training based on individual school curricula.
The model of organization of profile education at the highest level has a certain structure. High school students are offered a course of their choice in which the various subjects of the school curriculum are combined. The flexible profile education system created at the same time includes the following types of academic disciplines:
- general educational base.
Features of elects
What is elective at school? These are courses that have a wide range of tasks and functions:
- provide a deep level of mastering specialized subjects (sections);
- promote familiarity with related academic subjects ("Biochemistry", "Physical Chemistry", "Computer Graphics");
- guarantee an increased level of mastering basic academic disciplines (for example, in the Russian language, electives in grades 10-11 are aimed at preparing for the success of the Unified State Exam);
- help adolescents to master ways to solve various practical problems, to successfully adapt to the social environment;
- create continuous career guidance;
- help to satisfy the cognitive interest of students in certain subjects;
- are a way to promote graduates in the labor market (electives on paperwork, accounting).
What other meaning do the elects have? The English language, which is currently international, children can learn not only in the framework of traditional lessons, but also in electives.
Currently, employers need employees who can take responsibility for committing certain actions. In order to fully fulfill the social order, additional classes are organized in schools that have different directions.
What is elective? This is a course in one or several disciplines, a visit to which is an excellent way for a student to develop intellectual and creative abilities.
Arguing over the fact that such an elective, we note that it helps teachers introduce in the educational and educational process of the GEF of the new generation.
The key idea of specialized education is to increase the growth of opportunities for students. Pre-profile education was introduced at the second educational stage - in 9 grades. What is the career counseling elective?
How are electives different from electives? The main feature of the first is that they are mandatory, but electives are not among those. Despite the fact that the child himself can choose an elective course, to avoid visiting at least one will not work. But you can engage in electives at will.
This is a course in which children are offered not only a variety of testing, but also offers information about the features of the professions and the demand for different specialists in the labor market.
How should the elective program in Russian, mathematics, chemistry, biology be designed? This question is of concern to many teachers working at the main and upper levels of education.
Elective courses must meet certain requirements.The main ones are:
- course content must comply with the requirements of the GEF, include material that goes beyond the regular school curriculum;
- the child must have the right to choose it;
- Courses are offered at the rate of 10-12 hours so that children can master several programs in a year.
Varieties of courses
Having figured out what an elevate is, let's move on to their division. Educators develop two options:
The first group assumes authoring programs that can be considered analogues of electives. Their main goal is to prepare for exams, deepening knowledge on the subject.
An example of the elective "Beyond the Textbooks of Chemistry"
Problem solving is an important aspect that allows you to master the material on chemistry in high quality and in depth. The proposed course allows you to modernize the skills and abilities of students in the field of computational problems, introduces different algorithms, promotes the practical application of the knowledge gained.
The ability to solve chemical problems is a criterion of creative attitude to this academic discipline. When passing the exam in chemistry students must demonstrate not only knowledge, but also non-standard thinking, logic.The course includes workshops that allow students to take initiative and develop autonomy.
An important aspect is the use of calculated tasks that are associated with medicine, biology, ecology, physics. The course equips students with basic algorithms for solving non-standard and standard tasks. He orients adolescents on the natural science profile, is designed for 68 hours.
Its main essence is to bring children to the realization of the connection between chemical education and life in society. An active life position is being formed, ideas for the application of theoretical skills in everyday life are laid. By its typology, this elective course is interdisciplinary.
Purpose of elektiv
The course clearly shows the unity of the material world, which contributes to the formation of a harmoniously developed personality.
When performing individual and group tasks, during the discussions, students acquire general educational skills and skills, improve their logical thinking.
This course introduces high school students to the following professions: environmentalist, physician, biologist, analyst chemist, etc.
- creating favorable conditions for creative self-realization and the formation of cognitive interest;
- analysis of the readiness of schoolchildren to learn material of increased complexity in chemistry;
- the formation of full-fledged design skills, as well as the ability to select a rational way to solve the proposed problem;
- professional orientation.
Students should know:
- ways to solve different types of problems;
- formulas required to find the answer to the question;
- main and alternative ways to solve chemical tasks;
- physical and chemical values.
Be able to:
- independently choose a rational solution;
- execute the task in accordance with the requirements.
Content of the program
- Acquaintance with the elective course (1 h).
- Analysis of algorithms for solving chemical problems for inorganic reactions (4 hours).
- Performing exercises for the compilation of reduced structural formulas of hydrocarbons of composition С7-FROM10branched structure, as well as their isomers (4 h).
- Problems with the use of the terms "mole fraction", "volume content", "molar concentration of solutions" (3 h).
- Consideration of tasks for determining the molecular formulas of various substances by known masses of reagents or products of combustion (5 hours).
- Tasks of olympiad character on the themes: “Alkanes” (2 hours).
- Analysis of the design tasks on the topic “Cycloalkanes” (5 hours).
- Specificity of consideration of tasks for the identification of molecular formulas of organic compounds of a certain homologous series based on chemical reactions with their direct participation (based on ethylene homologues) (2 hours).
- The tasks of the Olympiad level are: “Alkadiens” (2 hours) and “Alkines” (2 hours).
- Exercises on the topics: "Benzene" (2 h), "Arena" (1 h).
- Test work on the considered algorithms (1 h).
- Combined tasks in the section "Hydrocarbons and their compounds" (3 hours).
- Preparation of chemical reactions by the method of electronic balance with the participation of various classes of organic substances (3 hours).
- Tasks of the Olympiad level by subject: “Limit monatomic alcohols” (2 hours); "Polyatomic limit alcohols - ethylene glycol and glycerin" (1 h); "Phenols and aromatic alcohols" (1 h).
- Combined tasks for alcohols (3 hours).
- The tasks of the profile level on the topics: "Carbonyl compounds: aldehydes and ketones" (1 h), "Limit monobasic carboxylic acids" (2 h); "Unsaturated and aromatic carboxylic acids" (1 h).
- Tasks on the genetic relationship of carboxylic acids with other organic compounds (3 hours).
- Tasks of different levels of complexity by sections: “Esters” (2 hours), “Fats” (2 hours), “Carbohydrates are sugars” (2 hours).
- Drawing up a genetic relationship between different classes of organic substances, the implementation of ready-made schemes (3 hours).
- Combined tasks on the topics: "Hydrocarbons" and "Oxygen-containing substances" (3 hours).
- Test for the passed material (2 hours).
After introducing the standards of the new generation to the primary and main levels of education, schools began to introduce pre-profile and specialized education. In the ninth grade, in addition to vocational guidance electives, children are offered several more subject courses, the choice of which will enable them to prepare for the final state attestation, to think over their future career choice.
Teachers are increasingly trying to develop interdisciplinary electives, the content of which is associated with several subject areas at once. Attending classes allows children to choose the scientific field that is most interesting to them, to deepen their theoretical and practical knowledge in it.