What is bonsai? Cultivation and care at home
Bonsai - capricious plants, to achieve the desired result in the course of their cultivation at home is not easy. To get a beautiful tree, as in the picture below, you have to spend a lot of energy and be patient, because the trees do not grow in one day. So, what is bonsai and how can you grow it yourself at home?
What is a
A bonsai is a very beautiful bonsai tree. Such plants came to us from Japan, where the cultivation of these crops is almost a separate science.
According to the legends, one of the Japanese rulers wanted to create his own empire in miniature. For this, unusual dwarf trees, which look like toy models, were specially bred. Since then, bonsai has captured the hearts of many lovers of unusual cultures.
Selection of planting material
Being engaged in the selection of seeds, you need to consider those species that normally adapt to the type of climate where the plant will grow.If the maintenance of a bonsai tree in a garden or on a balcony is supposed, then it is necessary to choose that seed material which is adapted for cultivation only in room conditions. Thanks to this, the plant will feel great. In addition, in this case it does not require additional care.
Also pay attention to bonsai seeds of tropical species. Such trees are distinguished by unusual beauty.
How to prepare seeds for germination
This question should be approached in advance and begin to germinate seed so that by the summer - a favorable time for planting - it was ready for placement in the ground.
Important! Bonsai dive only in summer, when the plant is most intense in growth. So by the winter the young tree has time to get stronger.
Some of the bonsai seeds, such as pine, are planted immediately after the fence. But 90% of the planting material requires special training. Seeds have a hard shell that does not pass water well, therefore, in order to accelerate germination, they are placed in a moist environment. Wet sand is poured into the pot, on which seeds of a strange tree are placed.From above the vessel is wrapped in cellophane and cleaned in a cold place for 30-90 days. 2-3 days before the estimated date of planting, seeds are transferred to warm water. To speed up the germination, the shell can be slightly sawed. At the same time, you should not forget about the mandatory processing of planting material with a fungicidal agent.
How to plant bonsai according to all the rules
The soil for planting consists of two component parts: humus and sand. Before planting, as well as seeds, a soil mixture is prepared:
- Disinfect with hot steam.
The finished bonsai seeds are immediately planted in a fertile mixture. In this case, the pot should be clean, wide with drainage holes. Also, it should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate to eliminate the possibility of infection of seeds.
Bonsai: care at home, the choice of the pot and the subtleties of planting
In fact, this unusual plant is not so difficult to grow. This process is not much different from disembarking and caring for other cultures. The main thing is to follow some rules.
The vessel should not be high - up to 5 cm. At first it is filled with a drainage layer, then the prepared soil mixture is filled up. The soil is slightly compacted and the seeds are laid out on top, lightly sprinkled on them.Although this is not a prerequisite, since light-loving plants can not be covered with earth at all, but just slightly pressed them into the layer of earth. After that, the mixture is again compacted and watered. So that the seeds are not washed out during the irrigation process, you can go for a little trick: cut a thin circle out of thin paper to the same pot and, covering the top layer of soil, water the bonsai.
Speaking about the bonsai plant - how to care for it and feed it - you need to take into account that the planted seeds must be in greenhouse conditions. Therefore, the top of the vessel is covered with a glass lid, cut off with a plastic bottle or plastic wrap.
The pot is placed in a bright place where the air temperature does not drop below 20aboutC, but does not rise above +25aboutC. Seeds cover up from direct exposure to sunlight. Well, if you use the above method with a paper circle. It would be enough.
In the future, you should not be lazy to check the soil moisture, turn over the glass, get rid of condensate, do not forget about airing.
How to provide young plants proper care
With the advent of the first seedlings, the protective cover is raised, providing daily ventilation. Two hours a day will be enough for a Japanese bonsai. But it is worth starting from just a few minutes, gradually increasing the time to 120 minutes. With the advent of the first leaves, the cover can be removed altogether.
When the sprout forms 3-4 leaves, picks are carried out. Now it is necessary to transplant small trees: each in a separate pot, while cutting 2/3 of the roots of plants.
The first dressing is done 45 days after the pick. This procedure is carried out several times if the seedlings are not far behind in the care and develop normally.
With the approach of autumn, bonsai are prepared for a rest period. Top dressing is excluded, and the tree is placed on the window sill, closer to the cool.
In the spring re-transplant in another soil. In this new soil should consist of four components: humus, clay, sand, humus.
For 3-4 year of life at the strengthened trees begin to form a crown.
Now knowing how to grow bonsai at home, it remains for the small - to organize a systematic care.
Plant care rules
Keeping the pot with the plant in the wrong conditions, you can quickly destroy the unusual tree, because knowledge of the rules of care for the culture will help a step closer to the cherished goal. So, what is bonsai and how to care for it.
Providing light mode
The length of daylight in the usual habitat of the plant is somewhat different opportunities for growing in an apartment. Therefore, additional lighting is required in order to maintain an optimal mode of growing bonsai at home.
To avoid a lack of light and the unfavorable development of pathological flora, consider the following factors:
- The location of the plant.
- Remoteness from a source of sunlight: at the window, on a stool, on a table, hanging shelf, bedside table.
- Choosing the right side of the world in terms of Feng Shui for a bonsai tree.
- Angle of incidence of sunlight on the plant.
- Possible obstacles for uniform distribution of the rays over the entire area of the crown of the tree.
Choosing a light source
A permanent light source, even an artificial one, is suitable for the normal development of the plant and will serve as an alternative substitute for those who for one reason or another do not have the opportunity to organize full-fledged natural conditions.No matter what kind of lighting - the main thing that it was present.
Anyone who does not know what bonsai is, has probably heard that this plant feels best on the western window on the right side or the eastern window on the left. So the tree will take a course for more intensive growth and will gain strength.
Ensuring optimal access of natural light, it is necessary to monitor the window, adjusting the ingress of rays with the help of curtains, moving them away or lowering them in time.
Important! Due to differences in the length of daylight at home (subtropical and tropical zones), the plant may be deficient in lighting. This may affect the condition of the tree.
How to fill the lack of light for the plant
No matter how much the gardener tries to provide natural lighting, it will not work to compensate for the lack of natural sunlight, but this is all due to the geographical location. Therefore it is necessary to take additional measures and put into operation artificial lighting.
The year-round use of artificial light has a negative effect on the plant, although in cloudy weather, winter and autumn, this lighting is appropriate.
Halogen, mercury or fluorescent fluorescent lamps can be included. However, their cost is quite high.
Standard incandescent bulbs in this case are not suitable, as they do not illuminate enough, but they heat very strongly, thereby destructively acting on a delicate culture.
Best of all, bonsai at home feels under a fluorescent light bulb. This option is convenient and economical; her coefficient of action is not bad, and the purchase is easy.
Moisture and humidity in the room
Not every beginner knows what bonsai is and how to care for it properly. Few people pay attention to the mode of irrigation and the features of moistening not only the plant itself, but also the air in the room in general.
In urban areas, i.e. apartments, it is often necessary to level out insufficient moisture to an optimum value. This is easy to implement using modern devices. An air humidifier is a fairly effective way, but cheap models do not have the desired effect, but a really high-quality set costs a lot of money.
There is a simpler way - placing a pot in a small bowl of water, for example,a little in-depth plate or a small spacing. Such a move will allow water to saturate the air above the surface of the pot with moisture. The effect can also be enhanced by just placing the container above the heating radiator.
The easiest and cheapest way to care is direct spraying or a wet shower for plants. But this method gives a short-term result, because it will have to carry out the procedure often and systematically.
Temperature is another important criterion for maintaining the plant in a healthy balanced state. Some cultures feel good in a cool habitat, others are drawn to the heat and the sun.
Pomegranate, olive, rosemary, myrtle and including the bonsai tree in the winter time require maintaining the optimum temperature + 7-15aboutFROM.
In summer, the plant can be carried out to fresh air: a balcony or terrace. At the same time, tropical species feel comfortable at temperatures from +16aboutup to +25aboutWith throughout the year.
Experts recommend not to put the pot on a cold stone or concrete surface. The temperature of the content of the plant bonsai regulates the consumption of light, water, nutrients by the plant.
We provide the right watering
Anyone who decides to start a bonsai tree should know that this plant is capricious and requires a lot of attention. The list of rules for the care of cultivation includes a simple implementation technology, but not the last item on importance - watering.
In a pot with a growing tree should always be moist soil. Not wet and not overdried, but it is wet. It becomes clear that the procedure should be systematic and moderate.
In pots with highly compacted soil water does not flow to the bottom, which means it feeds the plant incompletely. In such a case, repeated or more abundant watering is required until the whole earth is saturated with moisture.
In the summer, the bonsai plant needs a little more moisture than usual. This period is characterized by accelerated growth and vital processes.
For irrigation it is best to use warm water, separated for several hours. During this time, the extra impurities will settle, and the water will reach room temperature.
Generally accepted standards for the care of plants and apply fertilizer. This is a mandatory item, as there is little soil in the bonsai hill, respectively, and the nutrients are practically absent.
It is best to alternate fertilizers: well-balanced, complex, recommended for application during the period of active growth, and with low nitrogen retention "autumn" mixture. In winter, fertilization is minimized or stopped altogether.
For top dressing and home care for bonsai, you can purchase a modern complex in the form of a granular fertilizer of prolonged action. In this case, do not have to feed too often.
To ensure that long-term efforts and regular care are not wasted as a result, follow the recommendations. Then it will turn out to grow a mini-bonsai tree, a photo of which can not fail to fascinate.
These trees are distinguished by unusual beauty and fit perfectly into any interior. Bonsai is a whole direction in the cultivation of crops, which can be not only a pleasant hobby, but even money-generating work. At the same time for such a hobby do not need to have special knowledge. It is enough to know the basics and how to grow bonsai from seed will not cause many questions.