Types of power plants in Russia
Depending on the source used, certain types of power plants are distinguished. Let us consider each of them in more detail, highlighting the features, principle of operation, scope. In addition to traditional energy sources, on the basis of which thermal, nuclear, hydroelectric power plants function, recently the state began to pay attention to the use of alternative energy sources.
All power plants are divided into the following groups:
- Thermal power plants. The types of fossil fuels used on them allow them to be divided into heat and condensing stations.
- Pumped and hydraulic power plants operate at the expense of the energy of the falling water.
- Nuclear power plants use the energy of nuclear transformations.
- Diesel power.
- Thermal power plants with steam-gas or gas turbine installations.
- Solar power.
- GEOTES (geothermal power plants).
- Tidal stations.
These types of power plants are used for heat and power.
The most convenient type is electrical energy. The transformation of the primary energy into it is carried out at power plants.
Energy in Russia
The main types of power plants in our country: thermal, nuclear, hydroelectric power plants. More than half of the energy produced by thermal power plants. They are built in areas where the extraction of fuel, or on the ground with the consumption of energy. It is advisable to build hydropower plants on mountainous full-flowing rivers, therefore such stations appeared on the Angara, Yenisei.
These types of power plants in Russia are on the Volga. The share of hydropower plants accounts for about 67% of the electricity generated in the country.
Different types of nuclear power plants in Russia are located in the western part of the country, where there is an increased energy consumption.
Brief description of TPP
The schematic diagram assumes the transfer of heat from the coolant to the turbine, as a result of which thermal energy is transformed into electrical form. These types of power plants provide for the cooling system of the spent coolant so that you can set the temperature required for the re-cycle.To this end, the heat of the spent heat carrier is used to heat water in the houses of a settlement located near a thermal power plant.
The main equipment of such stations is the boiler-steam generator, cycle condenser, generator, circulation pump, turbine. The main types of power plants convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, feeding part of the steam into centralized heat mains.
Arguing over what types of power plants exist in our country, it is impossible to ignore alternative installations for generating electrical energy.
The sun is not only a source of heat and light, thanks to it many other types of energy are used (for example, oil, water, coal, wind).
The use of solar panels in the northern regions of the country is not as beneficial as in warm areas. And yet, many residents of the Russian Federation are trying to use alternative energy. To make the right decisions about the effective use of an alternative energy source, you need to think about the cost of solar panels in the domestic market.It is difficult to tell the exact price of one kilowatt generated by a solar collector.
Today in Russia, 1 watt of electric energy produced by solar panels has a much higher price than the same amount of energy received from traditional sources.
The use of solar energy is justified only in those climatic conditions where the cost of one kilowatt is too high. For example, this is the northern regions of Russia.
In Russia, the average price for 100 W solar batteries is 5-6 thousand rubles, 200 W capacity is about ten thousand rubles. The minimum price per watt of electricity generated from solar panels is in the range of 55-60 rubles. Many energy systems are based on a solar collector. It absorbs the light energy of the Sun, converts it into heat, which is supplied to the coolant (liquid or air) and then used to heat residential buildings, heat water, generate electricity, dry agricultural goods or cook food.
Areas of use of solar collectors
They are in demand where heat is supposed to be used.The production technology of solar collectors was created in 1908. William Bailey of Carnegie Steel Company developed a manifold with a special insulated casing and copper pipes. Any solar collector accumulates energy in the tubes and metal plates installed on the roof of the building. For maximum absorption of radiation, the tubes are painted black. They are located in a glass or plastic case, slightly tilted to the south to fully absorb sunlight.
The collector can be represented as a small greenhouse, which accumulates heat under the glass panel. Since solar radiation is evenly distributed over the surface, the collector must have a large area. Solar collectors can provide household hot water for washing, washing and cooking, or used to preheat water for existing water heaters.
Separate attention deserves solar energy. It is this alternative source of energy that is of interest not only among individual citizens, but also among government structures.
Solar distillers can not only heat the water, but also to carry out its distillation. Not only fresh water, but also sea water is allowed as feedstock. The basis of their work is the evaporation of water from an uncovered source.
Hot water is a common option for the direct use of solar energy. A typical installation involves one or more collectors in which the liquid is heated to the sun. In addition, there is a tank to accommodate the heated fluid.
Even in regions characterized by an insignificant amount of solar radiation per year, for example, in the Arkhangelsk region, using a solar installation can satisfy more than half of the population’s need for hot water. Heating water with the help of solar energy is a very practical and economical way, the efficiency is 50-90%.
If you also have a small wood-burning stove, you can meet the domestic demand for hot water almost all year round without the use of fossil fuels.