Types of lessons on GEF in primary school. Lesson structure, topics and lesson objectives
With the adoption of the next version of the educational standard on the GEF in the primary school has undergone many changes. For the most part they are of fundamental importance. The main requirements for the lesson have become different, the terminology used by teachers for describing work has changed. And, of course, the biggest changes directly affected the lesson as the basic unit of the educational process.
This article will discuss the change in universal actions within the educational process and the types of lessons on GEF in primary school.
One of the ways to develop younger schoolchildren is problem-based learning, in which the requirements for conducting lessons of a new type change significantly, the types of lessons and their structure become different. Due to the fact that the emphasis has been shifted in education to the intereststhe needs and requests of the student, the types of lessons on GEF in the basic school dictate a different approach to learning: the content of the material is not prescribed by the teacher, but conditions are created under which the student comes to realize the need to master the proposed program.
Many teachers and parents do not yet support this approach to learning. But nevertheless, the lessons on the Federal State Educational Standards ("School of Russia") are aimed precisely at this area of activity. With this approach, the form of the lesson cannot but change, since it must include in itself the creation of this situation, the realization that knowledge is clearly not enough. Then there is a motivation for learning new material. Then the teacher creates a learning situation in which the student can almost independently search for the missing information. That is why the types of lessons on GEF in primary school were changed, which are divided into several groups.
First, a lesson is offered in which students should get acquainted with the new material. This is a lesson of learning new knowledge or a lesson of discovering new knowledge - any option is acceptable. Its construction also began to differ from the former due to changes in the requirements of the GEF.Earlier in the beginning of the lesson there was an organizational moment, now it is called the stage of motivation.
Repetition of the material studied became the stage of actualization, that is, children are offered a problem task that they need to try to solve, relying on already familiar material, and when this did not work out, it is concluded that additional knowledge that can be obtained through observation or experiment is needed for the solution. This is called the primary assimilation of the material. The new technological map of the lesson on GEF represents a significantly modified terminology.
When the motivation stage has been passed, the student needs to understand the new information, in this process the children work on the task independently, followed by a check requiring discussion of each issue with the definition of the place that the new material now occupies in the entire knowledge system, as well as its practical application. Then - mandatory instruction regarding homework and reflection, that is, understanding what was happening in the classroom.
Of course, this lesson structure is very approximate.There are non-traditional types of lessons - excursions, presentations, travel, lectures, meetings, conversations and many others. Only the main features of the traditional planning composition are preserved here.
Since the types of lessons on this type can be very different, the teacher makes plans for the traditional or non-traditional system. Technological map of the lesson on GEF helps to solve a variety of tasks. First of all - educational: introduce, teach, analyze, and so on. Then - educational: to wake up creative and cognitive activity, to form a love for the motherland, curiosity, perseverance to knowledge and much more.
Most likely, developmental tasks are solved when the child develops skills: analysis, comparison, reading schemes, using reference books, and the like. And here, of course, the main effect is provided by the correctly chosen structure of the lesson.
This is now called the lesson of the integrated application of knowledge, in essence, remaining still fixing the material studied. Many subjects of GEF lessons require assignment of several hours to each, almost always in elementary school.Then - in the older ones - the Russian language, mathematics and some other subjects must pass with the material fixed. The objectives of the GEF lesson are pursued the same, and the structure of construction is similar in almost everything.
The only difference is that the students have the opportunity to solve the proposed task after updating the knowledge gained, although the material is standard and the task is not. A lesson of this type is very good in non-traditional design, where there can be a variety of types: a lesson-journey, a lesson-excursion, a lesson-court, a lesson-business game, a lesson-conference and so on, the main thing is to create a non-standard situation to wake up thinking the ability of children to learn to dream and at the same time make real decisions. These are the goals of the GEF lessons. Fastening material is best done in a non-standard setting.
Systematization and synthesis
Systematizes and summarizes the knowledge gained, the lesson of reflection on GEF. In the light of innovations, this lesson is given special importance, since it is here that in the minds of students everything seems to be arranged on the shelves. The motivational stage takes place in the form of a discussion of the need to systematize knowledge, where images of a storeroom, a book depository, and the like are used.Here it is necessary to answer many questions regarding the principle of the layout of the material received: which parts of it will be in demand often, which less often, which information is closer to which.
Then the learned is repeated again, but on a qualitatively different level. Pupils solve questions submitted in an unusual formulation or with unusual conditions. This is followed by control, and with the application of new requirements - self-control, which is also aimed at generalization, it is then that the lesson of reflection will succeed.
The lesson of systematization of knowledge is aimed not only at teaching generalization, but also to enter all the obtained information into the general context of knowledge of the world. That is why the entire stage of reflection is so carefully worked out, with a clear indication of the principles of classification, the meaning of the material studied and its place in the general system of knowledge. Any type of lesson can be given this type of lesson, including a combined one: project defense, essay, conference, quiz, contest, workshop, dispute, role-playing or business game.
Developmental control lesson
Need multi-level tasks and the opportunity for the student to select them.This may be a test, where tasks are evaluated by different points, and the score will be set depending on their number. The tasks in such a lesson are solved both educational and educational, that is, there is a control of the knowledge gained in this section or topic, as well as conditions are created so that correct self-esteem is formed, and perseverance in achieving the goal is increased.
At the same time, the general development of the student takes place - in the ability to analyze, classify, compare, and if this is group work, then communication skills also improve. The following types are suitable for this type of lesson: competition, creative report, colloquium, quiz, oral survey, project defense, test or written test.
Now it is a lesson in the correction of knowledge. Work on errors is still important because it shows the reasons for their commission, corrects knowledge and outlines the direction of future work. If a student gets a grade lower than the one he wanted, then this should certainly be an incentive for further work and indicate the desired direction of activity.It is the correction lesson that should perform such tasks, otherwise the assessment will simply remain an insult, and sometimes even an injury, which is undesirable in all respects. That is why planning a lesson correction should be especially careful, and the preparation for such a lesson should contain a particularly thought-out motivational part.
At the core of the latest generation of the GEF is a completely new ideology. The task of educational institutions is to educate such a citizen in modern society, who will love to learn and will do it all his life. The student must develop as a subject in the world of knowledge - this is the main goal of modern education. A feature of the second generation of the GEF is the activity character of education, where the development of the personality is at the forefront. Knowledge, skills and abilities as such have ceased to be a priority of education, it refuses the tradition of presenting results in this form, but it formulates an orientation towards real types of activities.
The tasks set by the new rules of the GEF require an immediate transition to a new system-activity educational paradigm associated with changes in teaching activity in principle, otherwise it will not work to implement this standard.At the same time, the technology of education has changed with the introduction of ICT (information and communication technologies), which has opened up great opportunities for expanding the scope of education for absolutely every subject of a general educational institution.
Learning outcomes are formulated as personal, metasubject and subject. Federal State Educational Standards are established in the Russian Federation respectively from art. 7 of the Law on Education, representing a number of requirements that are mandatory in the implementation of educational programs of basic school. New requirements are being put forward, which are divided into three groups:
- The results of the development of the educational program of general education.
- The structure of the educational program of general education.
- Conditions for the implementation of the educational program of general education.
The core of the new standard was the ECM. This abbreviation speaks of universal learning activities, that is, general educational skills, general modes of activity, over-subject actions, and the like. Separately, a program is provided that forms universal learning activities - an essential part of the GEF.There are four types: communicative, regulatory, cognitive and personal. The meta-subject results of learning programs have the following requirements:
- Actively use speech tools and ICT tools (information and communication technologies) in solving educational and communicative tasks.
- Use a variety of search methods (reference sources, the Internet) to collect, process, analyze, organize, transmit, interpret information according to the cognitive and communicative tasks and technologies of each academic subject. Accordingly, choose the themes of lessons on the GEF.
The main educational program of general education contains three sections: organizational, content and target. In addition, there is a ULA program aimed at developing competences in the use and mastering of ICT at least at the user level: searching, building and transmitting information, presenting the work done, basics of information security in using ICT tools, including the global Internet.
The program contains:
1.The main directions and features of the implementation of projects in educational, research and project activities of students (this is engineering, research, applied, social, informational, creative, play direction of projects), as well as forms of work on the organization of such activities in time-study and extra-curricular frameworks for each of the areas .
2. Content, types and forms of work on the organization, formation and development of competences in the field of ICT.
3. A list describing the main elements and tools for the use of ICT competencies.
4. The results to be achieved in the development of pupils' competence in the use of ICT, the preparation of individual projects that are carried out in the educational process (may be within the boundaries of one or on an interdisciplinary basis).
5. Conditions ensuring the development of the ULA, information and methodological support, training.
6. Methodology, monitoring toolkit to check the success of students learning and learning the use of the ECM.
Technological map of the lesson
Routings are a new type of methodological products that provide high-quality and effective teaching and make it possible to achieve the planned results.The use of such cards helps to better organize the learning process, ensuring the implementation of the CRA in full compliance with the requirements of the GEF, and also reduces the time to prepare the teacher for this lesson very significantly. The idea of creating flow charts came to school from industry, there it exists as a type of documentation containing the description of the production process - manufacturing, processing a certain type of product, a list of production operations, as well as the equipment used and the mode of performing each operation over time.
In the didactic context, the technological map is a project of the educational process, where there is a complete description of it: from the goal of the GEF lesson to the final result with the obligatory use of innovative technologies in working with information. The essence of the technological map is that it contains a detailed project of pedagogical activity, a description of the tasks for students, the development of the topic and the design of the intended results.
Technological map is structured, interactive, algorithmic, technological and has generalization when working with information.In its structure there are: the name of the topic and the hours allotted for the study of it, the goals of development, the results that are planned (separately UUD, information and intellectual competence, metadisciplinary, subject, personality), resources and forms of work - metasubjective connections and organization of space, the main concepts of the topic, technology of studying the topic in stages. The work on the flow chart is completed with a control task in order to verify the achievement of the results that were planned.