Types of graphics. Graphics as an art form. What is raster graphics
Computer graphics have appeared relatively recently, in the last century, and belong to a completely new direction, which implies a creative approach to business, while opening up incredible possibilities for applying this digital art. There are easel, book, applied types of graphics that have been used by mankind for quite some time.
Computer graphics: the concept and application
For a long time computer graphics as an art form is positioned. And initially it was associated with writing, calligraphy and fonts. Thanks to the expansion of the limits of application and development of digital technologies, new types of graphics are emerging, including business, illustrative, engineering, and scientific.
The first picture on the monitor appeared in the last century, at the same time as computers. And the modern world is already impossible to imagine without the presence of new technologies in it.
Resolution as the basic concept of graphics
An important concept in computer graphics is resolution.It is at the computer screen, printer and image. Screen resolution is one of the properties of a computer system. An important role is played by the monitor, video card and operating system. The smallest digital unit of measurement appears as a point or pixel.
Printer resolution is a property of the printing device that is responsible for the number of pixels transferred to a certain minimum area. It has its own unit of measurement - dpi, with the help of certain settings the quality and size of the image is set. Image resolution is the property of the image itself. It is also calculated in dpi-units and depends on the settings of the graphical editor.
There is such a thing as the physical size of the image. The parameters of the drawings are determined by the height and width. This led to the emergence of additional units of measurement, millimeters, centimeters, and inches were used. If the resolution is increased or decreased, then the physical size of the image changes.
Computer graphics everywhere
Various types of graphics, including computer graphics, are present everywhere and are multifunctional tools of the digital revolution. You can hold interesting analogies.For example, the desktop is a nice courtyard in which you can play or work, the Windows operating system is a cozy and functional apartment, and the selected browser is a well-equipped way of traveling.
Graphics are everywhere, with its help, clothes, shoes, household appliances, printed and advertising products are modeled. Modern architects also can not do without it, otherwise they would create their projects for an incredibly long time. Computer innovation is widely used in the creation of 3D cinema, cartoons, games, as well as interiors of premises and photography. Graphics as a form of art is perceived by no means by all, many define it as drawing by numbers.
Varieties of computer graphics
In accordance with the method of creation, the following 3 types of graphics are distinguished: raster, vector and fractal. These types of 2D-directions, in turn, are divided into subspecies, each of which has its own technique of creating images. Relatively recently, a new type, the so-called 3D-modeling, has found wide application in various spheres of life.
Each type of graphics has its own principles of image generation.Raster is used when creating multimedia programs. These drawings are mainly scanned and then processed using graphic editors.
Using a vector view most often focuses on the area of design work and involves the generation of images of the simplest geometric elements. The fractal is no longer associated with drawing, but with programming, in which the basis is made up of mathematical calculations. An example of use is screen savers on television.
Raster graphics (images in the form of dots) its structure is similar to a piece of paper in the cell. To obtain a picture, it is necessary that the squares be painted in a certain color, either black or white. There is such a thing as a pixel. So, this is a composite particle of raster images, in other words a point. It is from the pixels that the whole image is composed. Since they themselves are dimensionless, they get their outlines when they are displayed on a computer monitor or printer.
The size of the image, the color depth in bits, and the file format, the size of which directly depends on the number of pixels, affects the amount of memory used by the raster image.This view is saved in the BMP format developed by Microsoft specifically for the Windows operating system. Another popular format is GIF with 256 colors as well as JPEG with high image quality.
This kind of graphics has found its use when creating multimedia objects, as well as printing publications. Pictures are not created with the help of special programs, but by scanning photos or drawings. According to this principle, digital cameras and cameras work. The main disadvantage is the so-called pixelation, that is, the distortion of the pattern by increasing the size and the inability to carefully consider the details.
The main components of vector graphics are lines, it does not matter - they are smooth or not. The memory of the computer that they occupy does not change due to the large size of the picture, since they are saved as formulas. Whatever manipulations with the lines are performed, only their parameters will change.
Vector graphics with the image of the image in the form of lines creates a picture thanks to clear geometric shapes. The main feature of this type is the joint use of computer commands and mathematical formulas.
Vector graphics focused on the object, it is also called drawing. Images are created using a combination of circles, lines, arcs and, for example, ellipses or squares. To create a three-dimensional image combine elements such as a cube and a sphere. Listing the advantages of the vector type, it is worth mentioning the savings in disk space.
Comparative characteristics of raster and vector graphics
The most important difference is that when you enlarge the image, the image obtained by vector graphics remains the most distinct. Compared to raster images, these images take up less memory, since only formulas are saved, not every point of the object.
If we compare these types of graphics, the visual capacity is better in vector. Therefore, its main advantage is its excellent clarity even at high magnification. However, the raster type is more realistic and natural image, and also it is better displayed on the printing device.
Fractal graphics are characterized by the fact that not the objects themselves are entered into the computer's memory, but only their mathematical formulas, so the computer remembers the picture as a kind of equation.When replacing the original data, a completely different image comes out.
This method is used to simulate certain objects of reality for the automatic creation of extraordinary illustrations. The smallest particle of measurement is the fractal, created in the 20th century and conquered the digital world. Its creator was a mathematician from Poland, Benoit Mandelbrot.
What kind of graphics gives a clearer image? The fractal version allows to reproduce not only simple images, but also the most complicated realistic illustrations. For fractal image files, the FIF format with the * .fif extension is used, which, compared to the JPG format, details the structure of the image much better with increasing or decreasing object size.
3D style graphics
Three-dimensional graphics uses its special means to generate objects in a three-dimensional form to obtain an image as close as possible to reality. Modern technologies allow rotation and detailed consideration of the object from each side. Other types of graphics by their nature are not capable of this.
It uses a variety of techniques to work with geometric shapes and flat surfaces to get three-dimensional drawing.In simple terms, the frame is initially made, which is subsequently supplemented by other elements that complete the realistic image.
Then they play with light, adjust gravity, take into account the characteristic atmospheric features and other spatial parameters of the object. For moving objects, coordinates and a certain route are indicated, as well as speed characteristics.
Undoubtedly, all kinds of graphics, including computer graphics, are firmly established in a person’s life, while they help to expand opportunities in many areas. Advertising, television, film industry, the Internet - this is not the whole list of applications. Computer graphics are a great field of activity for architects, designers, designers and inventors. The future is in numbers!