Types of bladed weapons: photo and names
Combat equipment - the prerogative and pride of men. The most interesting type of weapon is cold steel, which is fascinating. And some products become the pride of various collections and cost incredible money. Many will find it interesting to know what types of cold arms are and how they differ. Its evolution in history has undergone many changes, but even today there remain instances of which songs and legends are composed.
Definition of concepts
Melee weapons include any combat equipment for the use of which no combustible-explosive, compressed gas or electricity is used. Thus, all the variety of types of cold arms (photos with the names of the most common are presented in this article) are hand-made objects.
The standards of the Russian Federation approved GOST R 51215-98 "Cold weapon", where clearly defined terms and concepts in this area. They are used in all legal documents and relate both directly to types of knives and to household items.
According to these standards, it can be:
- On combat equipment, which is constructively designed to hit the target with the help of exclusively muscular strength.
- The form of cold weapons. Usually it is grouped according to a certain classification principle.
- Type A collection of samples with the same design features. For example, daggers, knives and brass knuckles are referred to as a type of contact cold weapon.
- Sample. Specific design sample.
Yesterday and today
The history of combat equipment goes into the depths of antiquity and does not begin at all from the moment when man discovered the amazing properties of copper. It was the knife that became the first cold weapon of a person, and it doesn’t matter at all whether it was a shell with a pointed edge or a breakaway stone. It happened before people tamed the dogs and curbed the fire.
Even 500 years ago, the whole variety of types of cold arms, the names of which are countless, was the only and main weapon of the army. With the discovery of gunpowder, it is replaced by firearms. Today, this type of combat equipment carries only an auxiliary and complementary function in armament.Used as a prize or an honor, it becomes an object of art and collectibles.
In addition, in the cold arms is hidden some kind of mystical part and magical attraction. This is due to the fact that many knives and daggers were used in ritual and sacral acts.
Name the types of knives that exist, in this article is not possible. Indeed, only its classification by scope includes combat, hunting, domestic, tourist and sports. Therefore it is necessary to consider only the general principles of classification with illustrations of types of cold arms with names and photos.
If the general structure is taken as the basis for the classification, cold arms can be standard, combined, arbitrary, disguised, or not at all typical.
The most common classification of types of cold weapons - according to the principle of action and the characteristics of the damage caused. In this category, there are:
- Chopping objects - the blade forms a chopped, wound surface (swords).
- Cutting - the wound surface is cut.For example, Japanese shurikens are a type of cold weapons (photo below) of throwing effects.
- Stitching bayonets that form a stab wound.
- The piercing-cutting varieties are the well-known knives and blades.
- Hacking and cutting types of cold arms - the wound surface combines both chopped and cut damage (checkers, sabers).
- Shock-shattering - a weapon that breaks down soft tissue and breaks bones (for example, mints).
Hitting targets and ways to hold
With regard to the defeat of the enemy, types of cold weapons are contact and missile. By methods of control and retention, as well as actions, distinguish:
- Blades.The warhead is firmly connected with the handle. In this category, short-bladed (up to 30 centimeters), sredneklinkovye (up to 50 centimeters) and long-blades (more than 50 centimeters) are distinguished.
- Pole steel weapon.Warhead mounted on the pole, made mostly of wood.
- ShockIts warhead is a massive part with spikes or bumps (for example, a mace or mace).
In modern classification, in relation to the appointment and use of this kind of combat equipment, there are the following types of it:
- Civilian cold weapons.This group includes all types of cold arms that are legally allowed for use by citizens. This is a sports and hunting blade. Also here can be attributed weapons, which is part of national costumes.
- Military edged weapons.This is the combat equipment that is in service (bayonet, combat knives, daggers of the Navy), award and front.
- Separate group -criminal weapon.These include home-made species, made from samples of the existing, and very special, unique in its kind type (cue ball or handheld).
Not every knife fits this classification.
The definition of this type of weapon is given in the Federal Law “On Weapons” (No. 150-FZ of December 13, 1996). And yet this particular type of equipment remains one of the most controversial. It is often possible to observe a situation where confusion arises between cold weapons and household items.
But this question usually arises in court sessions, when it is determined whether a weapon of crime was a cold weapon. Usually this conflict is explained by experts. But the main signs of cold weapons are:
- Handle design.
- The length of the blade and its level of hardness.
- The thickness of the butt (part of the blade weapon, which protects from slipping hands on the warhead).
In accordance with the attribution of the same knife to melee weapons, the rules for acquiring and wearing them change dramatically. In order not to be trapped with the purchase of this instrument, an information leaflet should be attached to it, which indicates its legal identity. It is important to remember that to carry cold arms requires a special permit, and in the case of the acquisition of a knife that is not related to cold weapons, there is no prohibition to wear them if you have an information sheet.
The quality of the blade determines the material from which it is made.
Do not go into a variety of alloys for the manufacture of weapons. It is better to dwell on the material from which military equipment was made in Russia - this is an interesting fact.
Everyone knows the expression "damask" steel. It is an alloy of cast carbon steel with a carbon content of more than 1% and its uneven distribution. Such a composition of the alloy gave the weapon contradictory properties: the ability to bend almost into the ring and high density.
Among all the variety there are edged weapons that simply amaze the imagination.
- Indian throwing spear chakra. They were of various sizes, worn around the wrists or neck, andthrowinglike a frisbee. That chakra was the main weapon of the main heroine of the series "Xena - Princess Warrior".
- The amazing design of the throwing knife with multiple blades - Kling. His homeland is ancient Nubia, and the length of a knife is up to 55 cm.
- The ancient Aztecs had their cold weapons - makuahutl. On a long wooden pole, pieces of volcanic obsidian were attached. The wounds from this weapon were terrible: it combined sharp edges and notches, could cut off the head and tear the flesh.
- The most unusual type of Indian dagger is Qatar. There are many varieties of this piercing cold weapon, but their distinguishing feature is the double H-shaped handle. The decoration of this weapon corresponded to the social status of its owner, there are Cathars with gold and silver chasing, extraordinarily beautiful and at the same time dangerous.
- But an unusual type of Chinese edged weapons - a flexible whip or zhuanbyan. This is a chain of 3-36 links connected by rings. The last link is more massive and ends with a spike.
- Samurai Iron Fan (tessen) - they weighed up to 0.5 kg and consisted of 7-10 metal plates. Such a fan could not stop the arrow, but a skillful samurai could redirect the arrows and chop the enemy with sharp edges.
“We sing a song to the sword”
The sword is a long-blade cold weapon. This is the elite of the blades, and in the history there are several swords, which are legends.
- In the chapel of Monte-Siepi (Italy) there is a relic - a sword in stone. Maybe it is connected with him the legend of King Arthur and his legendary Excalibur. This sword belonged to the knight Galliano Gvidotti, who lived in the XII century.
- Japanese blades of Muramas. This master lived in the XVI century, and, according to legend, in his every sword is a bloodthirsty spirit. These swords after a series of murders and attacks on the rulers of Japan were outlawed. According to various sources, today there are only about 100 swords of this master, and they are highly valued.
- In contrast to the blades of Muramas, there are blades of the Japanese master Masamune. They are believed to give owners wisdom and balance.
- Sword of St. Peter. It was to them that the Apostle Peter cut off the ear of a servant of the high priest, when Jesus Christ was arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane.It is stored in the museum of the city of Poznan (Poland).
- Nanatsusaya no tati ("seven-sword"). Amazing in form of a sword, which 1.5 thousand years ago was presented to the mythical Empress of Japan, Jingu.
Signs and superstitions
The proximity of a person with cold weapons gave rise to a lot of superstitions. Let's try to understand some of them:
- "There is a knife - embitter." Most likely, this is a behavioral modern requirement. But there is a certain amount of truth in this sign. After all, who ate with a knife? Soldiers, robbers, hunters. And they, you see, are not the kindest people.
- "Putting the knife on the table with the blade up - to a quarrel." Well, here everything is explainable - if someone gets hurt about him, then quarrels cannot be avoided.
- "You can not give knives, but you can sell it for a nominal fee." It’s hard to say where this belief came from.
- “Knife find. It is not recommended to bring home knives found on the road or intersection. ” And today these places are considered mystical, because they are often used in rituals.