The use of glucose in medicine
We live at the expense of our body's energy, which provides all the necessary processes of vital activity. Only thanks to her we have the opportunity to breathe, laugh, enjoy every new day and happy moments of our life. Without energy, the work of electrical engineering, computers, objects of our everyday life is impossible, and most importantly, without this component, a living organism cannot exist.
The source of this energy itself, its supplier in our body is a compound called glucose - a representative of monosaccharides. The structure, properties and use of the substance will be discussed in our article.
What is glucose?
Glucose is also called "grape sugar", since its greatest amount is found precisely in the juice of grapes. Also, a fairly high content in all ripe fruits and berries, in addition, glucose is part of the sugar and honey.
"Grape sugar" is a colorless crystalline compound in powder form, well soluble in water and having a sweet taste. The melting point ranges from 146 degrees.This compound belongs to the group of polyhydric alcohols and monosaccharides, that is, those groups of substances that, when hydrolyzed (dissolved in water), do not break down into simpler constituent molecules.
The use of glucose is very extensive.
Glucose is formed in the process of photosynthesis in the green parts of plants, and from it, in turn, glycogen is synthesized, which, when interacting with creatine phosphate, is transformed into adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP), which is the main energy supplier.
The benefits of "grape sugar" for the body
Consider the chemical properties of glucose, its application in various fields.
Since this is a monosaccharide, immediately after eating glucose, it is rapidly absorbed in the intestine, after which the processes aimed at its oxidation are carried out to release free and so necessary for our body energy. In addition, it is very nutritious and is the main source of energy for the adequate functioning of the brain. In fact, the energy that is formed during the oxidation process is about one third of the total energy of a living organism.
Glucose: properties and application
However, as with everything, a balance is also needed here. Everything is good in moderation: so, with a lack of energy, we become sluggish, lose concentration, our attention decreases. Conversely, with an increase in its level, the synthesis of the main hormone-antagonist of glucose, the hormone of the pancreas, insulin, increases, which leads, respectively, to a decrease in the concentration of sugar in the blood. When these interactions are disrupted, endogenous disease such as diabetes mellitus develops.
Being a small compound, natural sugar is involved in the formation of more complex compounds, such as, for example, starch and glycogen. It is these polysaccharides that form the basis for cartilage, ligaments and hair.
The use of glucose is discussed below.
How does it accumulate?
Our body is sufficiently stockpiled, so it "puts off" glycogen (the main carbohydrate reserve) for unforeseen situations (for example, heavy physical exertion). Glucose accumulates in the muscle tissue, in the blood (with a concentration of 0.1-0.12% of total sugar) and in individual cells. Now it becomes quite obvious that the sugar level rises after a meal and decreases during physical exertion and fasting.This leads to the development of such a pathological condition as hypoglycemia, with the development and increase of the degree of excitability, anxiety, accompanied by muscle tremors and fainting.
The use of glucose in sports
It is used as a means to increase the level of endurance, provides the highest level of performance of athletes and athletes, as its caloric content is almost two times lower than fatty foods. But at the same time, it is oxidized much faster, thereby ensuring a fairly rapid flow of “fast carbohydrate” into the blood, which is so necessary after the exhausting training or competition. To achieve these goals, glucose is used in the form of tablet preparations, infusion and injection solutions, or an isotonic solution (dissolved in water).
Indications for the use of glucose will be diverse.
Glucose is very important for bodybuilders, since with its lack not only deterioration of cellular and, as a result, tissue metabolism, but also the possibility of gaining body weight is significantly reduced. Why is this happening?
After all, an athlete in this situation deliberately uses a huge amount of sugar, so why then do we observe a loss in weight? The paradox is that at the same time, bodybuilders train a lot. In addition, huge doses of glucose significantly increase cholesterol levels, as well as contribute to the development of endocrine diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Glucose is deposited in the form of fatty compounds, with which, in fact, the athlete is struggling.
The structure, properties, use of glucose have been studied for a long time.
There are rules for the use of this sugar: before starting a workout, you should not get involved in sugary drinks, as this threatens fainting as a result of a sharp drop in glucose concentration due to the production of insulin. The most optimal glucose intake immediately after class, during the so-called carbohydrate window. To prepare the aforementioned isotonic drink, you need to take 14 tablets of glucose, each weighing 0.5 grams, and a liter of plain purified boiled water. Next, you need to dissolve the sugar in the liquid and take every 15-20 minutes for an hour.
- Food industry: as a substitute for sucrose, as a raw material for the production of dietary products.
- Confectionery industry: part of the candy, chocolate, cakes; production of molasses necessary for the preparation of marmalade and gingerbread.
- Ice cream production is based on the ability of glucose to lower the freezing level of this product, meanwhile increasing its density and hardness.
- Production of bakery foods: creates favorable conditions for fermentation processes, which entails an improvement not only in taste, but also in organoleptic.
What is the use of glucose tablets?
- In the process of canning fruits, juices, liqueurs, wines.
- In the production of the dairy industry and baby food, mixing in certain proportions with sucrose is used to obtain greater nutritional value.
- In poultry, veterinary medicine and agriculture.
- In the pharmacological industry for the production of vitamin C and drugs, as well as a preservative.
- In the leather business is used as a reducing agent.
- In textile activity, glucose is necessary for the production of viscose.
- Use in microbiological practice is based on the use of "grape sugar" as a nutrient medium for the cultivation of various microorganisms.
Natural sugar has detoxification and metabolic properties, on which its use in medical practice is based.
Monosaccharide is available in the following forms:
- Glucose tablets. Instructions for use says that it contains 0.5 grams of dry matter of dextrose. With oral (through the mouth) use has a vasodilator and sedative effect, replenishing the body's energy reserves, thereby contributing to an increase in the intellectual level of development and physical activity of a person.
- In the form of a solution for infusion infusions. One liter of 5% glucose solution accounts for 50.0 grams of dry matter of dextrose, 10% solution, respectively, contain 100.0 g, in 20% of the mixture - 200.0 g of the active substance. It should be borne in mind that the 5% saccharide solution is isotonic with blood plasma, therefore, its introduction in the form of an infusion contributes to the normalization of acid-base balance and water-electrolyte balance.
- The solution in the form of intravenous injections contributes to an increase in the osmotic pressure of the blood, dilation of the vessels, increased outflow of fluid from the tissues, increase in urine formation, which in turn ensures the activation of the metabolic processes in the liver and normalization of the contractile activity of the heart muscle.
Indications for use
Instructions for use of glucose indicates that the indications for use are:
- Low concentration of blood sugar (hypoglycemia, hypoglycemic coma).
- Significant mental (intellectual) and physical exertion.
- For the speedy recovery in the period of rehabilitation after surgery or prolonged illness.
- As a complex therapy for decompensation of pathological processes, presented in the form of cardiac insufficiency, intestinal pathologies, hemorrhagic diathesis, or diseases affecting the liver or kidneys.
- Collaptoid state.
- The shock of any genesis.
- Dehydration regardless of source of origin.
- The period of intoxication with narcotic drugs, various chemical compounds.
- In pregnant women in order to increase the weight in the fetus.
The instructions for use for glucose confirm that concentrated solutions (10%, 25%, 40%) are used only for intravenous routes of administration at the same time no more than 20-50 milliliters, with the exception of emergency situations in the form of massive blood loss, hypoglycemia. In these cases, up to 300 milliliters per day is poured. The physician should remember, and the patient should take into account the synergistic interaction (mutual reinforcing effect on each other) of glucose and ascorbic acid. Tablets are taken in the same dosage 1-2 pieces with an increase to 10, depending on the need.
It is imperative to take into account that dextrose has the ability to weaken the effect of glycosides on the heart so that their inactivation and oxidation occurs. Accordingly, it is necessary to take a break between the methods of these means. Also, the effectiveness of the following drugs is reduced under the action of glucose:
- adrenomimetic agents.
If a person has hyponatremia and renal failure, then it is necessary to take glucose with caution, constantly keeping the central hemodynamic parameters under control.According to the indications prescribed during pregnancy and lactation. Children under 5 years old do not prescribe a tablet form because they can not dissolve the tablet under the tongue. Often prescribed drug glucose for alcohol intoxication and various poisonings.
Contraindications to the use of glucose
Do not prescribe the drug when a person has:
- any pathological condition, accompanied by a drop in blood sugar levels;
- cases of individual intolerance (the development of the phenomena of drug or food allergies).
You need to understand that you need a reasonable use of both glucose and all food, drugs. Otherwise, it threatens to disrupt regulation, in particular, the endocrine system, reducing not only the level of efficiency and physical activity, but also the quality of life.
We considered glucose - a representative of monosaccharides. Chemical structure, properties, application are described in detail.