The reserve of Lapland in the Murmansk region: territory, plants and animals
The Lapland Nature Reserve was founded in 1930 to study and preserve the population of wild deer, reindeer moss, which did not have time to affect the reindeer herding. In the future, the functionality has expanded - now the goal of the enterprise is the preservation of the natural complex of the western part of the Kola Peninsula. Today, the Lapland State Reserve is the only region in the region in which herds of wild deer have survived in a total of about one thousand heads. It is in the local water bodies that you can find a unique mollusk that has practically disappeared in the rest of Russia and the world - the European pearl. The reserve was included into the network of biosphere reserves of the world in 1985. The site area is 278.4 thousand hectares. From all sides it is covered by a protective zone exceeding 28 thousand hectares and having a width of 3-5 km in various regions.
The Lapland Nature Reserve is located in a region with a seaside subtropical climate.In January, the temperature (on average) is -9-14 degrees, in July - + 11-15. Annually falls from 329 to 445 mm of all types of precipitation.
In July, the thermometer can show a record + 30-33 degrees. The coldest days were in January, when the thermometer showed up to -40-45 degrees. In the summer, the air can be cooled briefly to a negative temperature. Storm winds can rage in the tundras of the foothills up to 5 months a year. The snow cover may be absent in the blown areas, or be more than 2 meters. On average, the snow layer is 60-80 cm.
The territory of the Lapland nature reserve is characterized by a considerably rugged relief. At various levels there is a huge number of small lakes interconnected by a network of rapids. In winter, the lakes are the reservoirs of relatively warm water, which makes it possible not to freeze through the rivers flowing from them. A water artery emanating from a natural pit is called its name. For this reason, several rivers of the Kola Peninsula repeatedly change their name, passing a series of lakes.
The highest waterfall in the region is a nameless stream, falling from the northern slope of Monche, the tundra into Waikis from a height of 40 m.
Reserve Lapland can not boast deposits of sedimentary rocks - they are not there at all. Lateral and main moraine deposits form the basis of plains and mountain slopes. Morena, which is the main soil-forming rock, in some areas reaches a capacity of not one ten meters. The soils prevailing in the region are the north-taiga podzolic. The development of marsh-podzolic marshes is characteristic of foothills, areas around marshes, plateaus, and concave parts of hills.
The Lapland Nature Reserve, whose plants are mostly conifers, introduces the main part of the flora of the Murmansk region.
The main part of the pine forests has started up the roots in sandy or sandy-sandy soils of a semi-undulating relief, the rest grow on wetlands. In this taiga, the undergrowth is quite diverse: mountain ash, several varieties of willow, gray alder, juniper. The bottom "floor" of the forest - lichens, mosses, shrubs. The latter include: wild rosemary, blueberry, lingonberry, heather, crowberry, blueberries. Herbs: ferns, cloudberries, honeymoons, grasses, Swedish turf, meandering meadow, majnik, wintergreen.
Spruce forests can be found on moist sandy soils or on loam. The reserve of Lapland is rich in Finnish spruce and its varieties from Europe, birch, pines. In such arrays the undergrowth is richer than in the pine forest. For spruce forests, the neighborhood with alder, rowan, black and red currants, various willows, juniper bushes, wild rose, wolf's bark is typical.
Near the reservoirs, on the plains grows birch fluffy and warty. The undergrowth in these forests is similar to that filled with spruce forests.
A typical aquatic flora is found in lakes, in streams and rivers: horsetails, water lilies, buttercups, bladderwort, marsh grasses, slate-bearing, etc.
Forests cover only up to 55% of the reserve. Uncovered areas are full of wedges and hot spots that have not been renewed since 1972.
One of the main values is old-growth forests untouched by man. In the midst of vegetation, you can find trees whose age reaches 600 years. These plants are able to reach a height of 15 meters with a trunk width of only 70 cm. According to expert estimates, the age of such forests is 3-10 thousand years.
The state of the flora is considered to be satisfactory, fully consistent with the tasks set for the reserve.
The predominant animals of the Lapland Nature Reserve use the areas designated for them as forage lands. In addition, for wild reindeer, this region provides the best for the birth and rearing of offspring. The fauna is represented by such animals:
- about 50 moose;
- two packs of wolves;
- about 40 brown bears;
- 40-50 foxes;
- ermines, martens, weasels, lemmings, minks, hares, otters, squirrels, mice, voles.
At the moment, the introduced European beaver has taken root in the reservation - its population has grown to twenty individuals. The muskrat is acclimatized. Not so long ago, a dozen martens were registered.
The largest rivers are used for breeding salmon and whitefish. River waters are rich in freshwater fish. The pride of the reserve is the lake trout - Kumzha. In addition, salmon are represented by whitefish, whitefish, grayling, and large smelt. Perch, burbot and pike are abundant in rivers.
Birds of the Lapland Nature Reserve - over 90 species of migratory birds, laying their nests in the protected area. Grouse, tundra / ptarmigan, hazel grouse, black grouse are most common. Among the waterfowl you can see the whooper swan, kryakovyh or diving ducks, various geese.There are endangered species: osprey, golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed eagle - these birds are listed in the Red Book.
Most of the birds breeding chicks in the reserve during the winter period prefer to fly to the shores of South Africa or to Antarctica. Thus do: mallard, goose-gumennik, black-throated gagra, redstart, teal-whistler, blackbird, gnith, pied flycatcher, blackbird, belobrovik, owl, tap dance, drebnik.
Reptiles of the reserve: viviparous lizard and adder. Of amphibians can be found only the grass frog.
The Lapland State Natural Biosphere Reserve allows scientists to study the northern taiga nature, especially the mountain tundra and lakes in their natural interaction. Specialists monitor wild reindeer in their natural habitat. They do not lose hope to restore the number of ungulates in all the northern regions. During the Soviet period, close attention was paid to the study of the effects of industrial-type atmospheric pollution on ecosystems.
Today, the reserve has a hard time.Since the organization is non-profit, administrations have no place to take money to finance security measures and the implementation of developed projects. In the hope of rectifying the situation, a department for working with tourists was created. It was believed that in this way it would be possible to get money for the needs of the reserve, but the plans did not come true. The volume of tourists is so small that it is not always possible to send a guide to the guarded territory, since the road to it is about 50 km. Often, even researchers can not get into the reserve due to lack of funds for the road.
Tourists are forbidden to appear on the territory without a guide. If the event took place, the visitors will be rewarded not only with magnificent views. They are awaited by the apartment-museum of Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, the Kreps Museum with a story about the history of the reserve. On the territory there is an ecological trail demonstrating the richness of nature of the Murmansk region and the Kola Peninsula. There are several interesting routes in the development phase. Among the existing there are several for school-age children. Today, it is the children from nearby communities that are the most frequent visitors.
Walking along the trail in good weather, you can diversify your trip with a swim in the lake Imandra. The water is very cold, the banks are gentle, so if you want to swim, you will have to go quite far.
The most favorite inhabitant of children is Santa Claus. On the territory of the reserve there is his hut, in which in the winter an old man is every day ready to receive little guests. Frost's home is decorated with crafts from children from all over the country. Tourists who visited the hut of the most famous and beloved Grandfather in the summer, will not be able to catch the host, but they can visit his tower, which has a Christmas tree all year round.
How to get
To visit the reserve, it is necessary to coordinate your trip with the administration in advance. It is necessary not only to make a call, but also to send a written request for arrival to the director of the institution. Tours are done on weekdays. In exceptional cases, you can agree on a Saturday. The excursion program includes a visit to the eco-trail, museums, the Father Frost tower. Designed for different ages, fun and interesting. You do not need to pay for the excursion, those who want to make donations at the end of the event.