The history of incandescent bulbs. Who invented the incandescent lamp? Advantages and disadvantages of incandescent bulbs
The history of incandescent lamps goes back to the nineteenth century. Consider the main points associated with this unique invention of mankind.
Incandescent lamp is a subject that is familiar to many people. At present, it is difficult to imagine the life of mankind without the use of artificial and electric light. In this case, rarely anyone thinks about how the first lamp looked, in what historical period it was created.
First, consider the incandescent lamp device. This source of electric light is a conductor with a high melting point, which is located in the flask. Air is pre-pumped out of it, instead the flask is filled with an inert gas.Passing through the lamp, an electric current emits a stream of light.
The essence of the functioning
What is the principle of the incandescent lamp? It lies in the fact that during the flow of electric current through the body of the heat, the element heats up, and the tungsten filament itself is heated. According to Planck’s law, it emits radiation of thermal and electromagnetic types. To create a full-fledged glow, you need to heat up the tungsten filament to several hundred degrees. As the temperature decreases, the spectrum becomes red.
The first incandescent bulbs had many drawbacks. For example, it was difficult to regulate the temperature, as a result of which the lamps quickly failed.
What is the design of a modern incandescent lamp? Since it became the first source of light, it has a fairly simple design. The main elements of the lamp are considered:
- body heat;
- current inputs.
At present, various modifications have been developed, a fuse is introduced in the lamp, which is a link. For the production of this item using nickel-iron alloy.The link is welded into the leg of the current input in order to prevent the destruction of the glass bulb when the tungsten filament is incandescent.
Considering the main advantages and disadvantages of incandescent bulbs, we note that since its inception, the lamps have been significantly upgraded. For example, due to the use of a fuse, the probability of rapid destruction of the lamp has decreased.
The main disadvantage of such lighting elements is their high energy consumption. That is why at present they have been applied much less frequently.
How did artificial light sources appear
The history of incandescent bulbs is associated with many inventors. Until the time when the Russian physicist Alexander Lodygin began working on its creation, the first models of incandescent lamps had already been developed. In 1809, the English inventor Delarue developed a model that was equipped with a platinum coil. The history of incandescent lamps is connected with the inventor Heinrich Goebel. In a sample created by a German, a charred bamboo thread was placed in a vessel from which air was previously pumped out.Goebel was engaged in the modernization of its incandescent lamp model for fifteen years. He managed to get a working version of the incandescent bulb. Lodygin achieved a high-quality luminescence of a carbon rod, placed in a glass vessel from which air was removed.
Option practical model
The first incandescent bulbs, which could be produced in large quantities, appeared in England in the late nineteenth century. Joseph Wilson Swan even managed to get a patent for his own design.
Speaking of those who invented the incandescent lamp, it is also necessary to dwell on the experiments conducted by Thomas Edison.
He tried to use various materials as filaments. It was this scientist who suggested a platinum filament as an incandescent filament.
This invention of incandescent bulbs has become a new stage in the field of electricity. Initially, Edison lamps functioned only for forty hours, but despite this, they rather quickly displaced gas lighting.
In the period when Edison was engaged in his research, in Russia, Alexander Lodygin managed to create several different types of lamps at the same time, in which high-melting metals played the role of threads.
The history of incandescent lamps indicates that it was the Russian inventor who first began to use refractory metals in the form of an incandescent body.
In addition to tungsten, Lodygin also conducted experiments with molybdenum, twisting it in the form of a spiral.
The specifics of the lamp Lodygina
Modern analogs are characterized by excellent luminous flux, as well as high-quality color rendition. Their efficiency is 15% at the highest value of the filament temperature. Such light sources for their work consume a significant amount of electrical energy, so their operation is carried out no more than 1000 hours. It is more than worth the low cost of the lamps, so, despite the variety of artificial sources of light presented on the modern market, they are still considered popular and in demand among buyers.
Interesting facts from the history of incandescent bulbs
At the end of the nineteenth century, Didrichson managed to make significant changes to the model proposed by the Russian inventor Lodygin. He carried out a complete pumping out of air, used several hairs in the lamp at once.
Such an improvement made it possible to use the lamp even when one of the hairs had burned out.
English engineer Joseph Wilson Swan owned a patent confirming the creation of a lamp with carbon fiber.
The fiber was located in an oxygen-dispersed atmosphere, with the result that the light was brighter and more uniform.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, in addition to the lamp itself, Edison invented a rotary household switch.
Large-scale appearance of lamps on the market
From the end of the nineteenth century, lamps began to appear in which oxides of yttrium, zirconium, thorium, and magnesium were used as the filament.
At the beginning of the last century, Hungarian researchers Sandor Yust and Franjo Hanaman obtained a patent for the use of tungsten filament in incandescent lamps. It was in this country that the first copies of such lamps were made, which entered the large-scale market.
In the United States in the same time period were built and launched plants involved in obtaining titanium, tungsten, chromium, by electrochemical reduction.
The high cost of tungsten has made its own adjustments to the rate at which incandescent bulbs are introduced into everyday life.
In 1910, Coolidge developed a new technology for the manufacture of thin tungsten filaments, which contributed to the cheaper production of artificial incandescent lamps.
The problem of its rapid evaporation was solved by the American scientist Irving Langmuir. It was he who introduced the filling of glass flasks with an inert gas into industrial production, which increased the life of the lamp and cheapened it.
Virtually all of the energy that is produced in the lamp gradually turns into thermal radiation. The efficiency reaches 15 percent with a temperature index of 15 percent.
As the temperature rises, the efficiency increases, but this causes a significant reduction in the lamp's service life.
At 2700 K, the lifetime of a full-fledged use of an artificial light source is 1000 hours, and at 3400 K - a few hours.
In order to increase the durability of incandescent lamps, the developers propose to reduce the value of the supply voltage. Of course, at the same time, the efficiency will also decrease by about 4-5 times. Engineers use this effect when reliable coverage of minimum brightness is required.For example, this is relevant for evening and night lighting of construction sites, staircases.
For this purpose, the alternating current of the diode lamp is carried out in series, which guarantees the supply of current to the lamp during half of the entire period of the current supply.
Considering that the price of an ordinary incandescent lamp is significantly less than its average service life, the acquisition of such sources of illumination can be considered quite a profitable measure.
The history of the appearance of the electric lamp model to which we are accustomed is associated with the names of many Russian and foreign scientists and inventors. For two centuries, this artificial source of illumination has undergone transformations, upgrades, the purpose of which was to increase the operational life of the device, reducing its cost.
The greatest wear of the filament is observed in the case of a sharp supply of voltage to the lamp. To solve this problem, the inventors began to supply lamps with a variety of devices that guarantee their smooth start.
In the cold form, the tungsten filament has a specific resistance, which is only twice as high as aluminum.In order to avoid peak power, the developers use thermistors, the resistance of which decreases as the temperature rises.
In low-voltage lamps with equal power, the resource of exploitation and light output are much higher, since they have a larger section of the glowing body. In luminaires designed for multiple lamps, the series connection of several lamps of lower voltage is effective. For example, instead of six lamps of 60 watts, connected in parallel, you can use only three.
Of course, these days, various models of electric lamps have appeared, which have much more productive characteristics than ordinary light bulbs invented during Lodygin and Edison.