The foreign policy of Nicholas 1 in 1826-1849. The results of Nicholas I's foreign policy
The internal policy of Nicholas 1, in short,contained two important milestones. The first can be considered the end of the war of 1812. The second is the uprising of the Decembrists and the change of the reign (1825th year). At the same time, Nicholas's foreign policy (the table will be cited at the end of the article) was largely influenced by the situation in Europe, on the territory of which bourgeois revolutions broke out. Next, we will consider what were the main directions of Nicholas's policy.
What was the internal policy of Nicholas 1? Briefly formulating the goals, it is first of all necessary to note that the main task set by the monarch was the codification of laws. The ruler paid special attention to the criticism and proposals of the Decembrists, constantly pointing out to him the lack of necessary order and, as a consequence, numerous abuses in the administration and court. The main purpose of the codification of the ruler was to streamline the legislation without introducing innovations. So he wanted to provide the most clear foundation for absolutism. Almost all work on codification was carried out by Speransky.
Stages of codification
In accordance with Speransky's plan, streamliningThe legislation was to be implemented in three stages. The first proposed to collect and publish all the Regulations in chronological order from the time of Alexei Mikhailovich until the completion of the reign of Alexander I. The second stage was the task of publishing the Code of Laws, which were arranged according to the subject-systematic order. At the same time, it was not intended to introduce any changes (additions or corrections) to them. At the third stage, it was planned to compile and publish a new "Code of Conduct" - a systematized set of existing legislation. In this edition, additions and corrections were supposed, taking into account customs and rights, as well as actual state needs.At the Second Section there was aprinting house. It printed the prepared volumes of the Laws of the Russian Empire (complete collection). In the period from 1828 to 1830, 45 parts were published. Three volumes of applications and pointers were also printed. All these parts were the First Meeting. It included 31 thousand legislative acts for the period from 1649 to 1825-ies. In addition, six more volumes were published. They came out during 1825-30. They began the Second Meeting. It included the normative acts issued during the reign of Alexander 2 and Nicholas 1.
Code of laws
He was preparing on the basis of the Full Meeting. When compiling the Code, acts that have lost validity or are replaced by subsequent laws were eliminated. Text processing was also carried out. All corrections, especially additions, could be made only with the Emperor's sanction. The monarch himself controlled the entire course of work. Previously, the Code of Law was considered by members of a special commission from the Senate. After that his separate parts were sent to the ministries. The code of laws was published in 15 volumes in 1832. It contained 40 thousand articles.
Speransky prepared 12 volumes of Militarydecrees, as well as the Code of Laws of the Grand Finland Principality and the Western and Ostsee Gubernias. During the reign of Nicholas I, the Collections of Marine and Spiritual Laws were published, as well as the Provisions on Nomadic Alien People of Eastern Siberia.
Other directions of Nikolay's policy 1 concernedenlightenment and the life of peasants. The monarch paid special attention to serfdom. Thanks to the publication of a number of laws, the position of landowners dependent on the landlord became somewhat better. The normative acts stressed that serf people are not simply the property of a private person. They, first of all, subjects of the state. Nikolay's policy in the field of education became more conservative. In 1828, he was reformed secondary and lower special educational institutions.
Results of activity
Conducted during the reign of Nicholas 1codification of laws, of course, allowed to streamline the existing legislation. Nevertheless, it did not change the structure of autocratic feudal Russia. In particular, this concerns the political and social field. The codification did not change the management system, did not eliminate corruption, arbitrariness and red tape, which reached their heyday precisely during the reign of Nicholas. Bureaucracy led to paperwork, which proceeded in clerical secrecy unchecked. In the first half of the XIX century, the number of officials increased significantly. The monarch saw all the vices of the bureaucracy, but it was not possible to eliminate them in the conditions of absolutism. This was the state policy of Nicholas 1 (briefly).
Russia's position in the world
By the second quarter of the XIX century, Russia hadstatus of a strong and large state. At that time, it was fully capable of solving all foreign policy issues on its own. At the beginning of the reign of the monarch, the backlog of the Empire from Europe in the military-technical terms was not so noticeable. The Russian army was numerous and was considered one of the best in the world.
Foreign policy of Nicholas 1: the main points
The base course has been preserved in Russia since the late 18th centurycentury, since the country began to form in a huge Eurasian Empire. The new autocrat, after his accession to the throne, announced the continuation of his predecessor's activities. However, later the monarch made it clear that Russia in the European arena would rely more on its own forces rather than rely on "federal solidarity." Nicholas I preserved the interaction with the German states, with Prussia, in the first place, since she had occupied a leading position in trade relations for a long time. In the same period, there was a clear trend towards Russia's rapprochement with France and England. The foreign policy of Nicholas 1 was aimed at strengthening the situation on the Black Sea coast, as well as ensuring the security of the southern borders of the state. Thus, the central issue was occupied by the eastern question, in particular, interaction with the Ottoman Empire. The Black Sea at that time was of great importance for Russia.
The most important problems
One of them was to provide as much as possiblefavorable conditions in the Black Sea straits - the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. Thanks to the free passage through them of merchant vessels, the economic development of the southern regions of the country took place. The foreign policy of Nicholas I was oriented toward the Caucasus. Russia sought to expand its holdings in the area, the final stabilization of the borders in the region, ensuring safe and free communication with the newly acquired territories. As a result, a solid integration of the entire Caucasus with the Empire was planned.
The beginning of the Russo-Persian War
The enemy in the conquest of the Caucasus territoriesIran spoke. In accordance with the peace treaty between him and Russia, the latter secured large territories in the Eastern Transcaucasus and the western part of the Caspian coast. By the 20s of the XIX century, Iran (Persia) began to seek the return of the Karabakh and Talysh khanates. At the court of the Shah, an anti-Russian grouping was formed, which had a fairly large force. As a result, war broke out. The commander-in-chief of Iran planned to eliminate Russia from possession of the Transcaucasian territories with one blow.
Foreign policy of Nicholas 1 did not anticipatemilitary operations. Entering the throne, the Emperor found a rather tense relationship between Turkey and Russia. Nevertheless, he considered it inexpedient to start fighting because of the Greeks. Initially, Russia, together with Great Britain, exerted diplomatic pressure on Turkey. The beginning of the thirties of the XIX century was a very busy period both in the Middle East and in the European direction. In the 1830-31-ies. A wave of revolutions has taken place across Europe. She also touched Russia. Immediately after the end of the Persian and Turkish wars of the Empire had to enter into conflict with Poland. The revolt in this country was promoted by the revolutionary situation in France and Belgium. As a result, in 1830, open unrest began in Warsaw. The Romanov dynasty was declared to have been deprived of the throne in Poland. A provisional government was formed. An army of rebels was created. Initially, they were accompanied by success. However, the forces were unequal. Soon the tsarist troops suppressed the uprising. In accordance with the published Decree, Poland was declared an integral part of Russia. By the end of the forties, a new, even more formidable wave of uprisings had risen on Western European territory. In France, the revolution broke out in 1848, in February; in Germany, Moldavia, Wallachia, Italy and Austria - in the spring. Nicholas 1 viewed the events as an immediate threat to the autocracy in Russia. It was in this connection that he decided to actively participate in suppressing the revolutionary movement.
The post-war period
After the end of the revolutions in Europe 1848-49-ies. the activities of Nicholas 1 was aimed at strengthening the strategic position of the Empire. The first issue was the question of the Black Sea straits. Under the agreements that were in force at the time, the Russian navy was opened the way through the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus. At the same time, Nicholas 1 sought to strengthen political influence in the Balkan Peninsula. At the expense of Turkey, England intended to strengthen its positions in Asia Minor, as well as in the Caucasian territories, and thus push Russia away from sea routes. The Crimean War showed the technical and organizational backwardness of the Russian state from Western countries.
Foreign Policy Outcomes of Nicholas 1
Russia's interference in the affairs of Europe, aspirationTo protect the old order provoked an outrage of the liberal circles. The Russian monarch even received a nickname. He was nicknamed "the gendarme of Europe". As a result, both the peoples and governments of other countries did not like Russia and were afraid of its arrogant reactionary tsar. They were happy to have any opportunity to destroy the influence and power of the Empire in European affairs.
Above described the foreign policy of Nicholas 1. The table displays the most important events that occurred during his reign. They reflect the essence of the king's activities.Table: Nicholas's policy 1
Strengthening of positions.
Ensuring a stable situation in Europe.
Prevention of the emergence of a revolutionary situation.
Suppression of uprisings:
Confronting Iran in the Caucasus.
The Russo-Persian War (1826-1828).
Accession of Eastern Armenia.
Military fleet on
The Caspian Sea.
The war in the Caucasus and annexation
its territories (1817-1864).
Striving to strengthen influence in the Middle East and the Balkans.
Solution of the issue on the Black Sea straits.
War with Turkey (1828-1829).
Conclusion of the Adrianople world (1829).
Accession of the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the mouth of the Danube.
Opening of the sea route along the Black Sea straits.
The Crimean War (1853-1856).