The concept of the culture of speech, the criteria and quality of good speech. Basic qualities of good speech
The culture of speech is a separate discipline inlinguistics. Its main goal is not the accumulation of as much knowledge as possible, but the ability to apply them correctly. Speech is the identification of the character of a person and even society as a whole. The qualities of good speech are very multifaceted. They show how much the style of communication corresponds to the situation. Speech should be successful both for the one who speaks and for whom it is addressed. This is the basic principle that describes good speech and its qualities.
Speech is a means to connect sounds with a certain meaning, as well as express the personality of a person, his thoughts, feelings and emotions.
People have been taking speech from childhood. Throughout life they grind, perfect this tool of self-expression.
If speech corresponds to all modernliterary norms, it can be called correct. If there are no expressions and constructions that are alien to the literary model, such a means of communication is called pure.
Speech is rich when used in itstylistic devices and methods. It becomes bright. Speech can also be logical or accurate, match a certain style, to which the audience is tuned.
But if this expression tool is availablelisteners, this is understandable speech. After all, it is very important that what has been said touches the listeners. The main qualities of good speech lie in the extent of its impact on a person.
Identify the main characteristics and qualitiesgood speech is not so simple. The concept of the culture of speech and its quality vary even for one people over time. Therefore, it can not be properly perceived, being out-of-date.
The standard of good speech varies territorially and socially. For each generation there are norms, the basic qualities of good speech.
Also, one can not distinguish the same qualities as good oral, written, monological and dialogical stylistics.
Evaluation of the quality of good speech, even in a specifically taken Russian language is made from the position of form, style and functionality, the conditions for its implementation.
A culture of speech
The culture of speech implies such an organizationlinguistic means and techniques, which, in observance of all norms of communication, is able in a certain situation to create the maximum effect in achieving the task assigned to it.
The culture of speech implies the mastery of the rules and constructions of the literary language. And both in oral and written forms.
Ability to choose and properly organizemeans of expressing thoughts also enters into the concept of "culture of speech." The qualities of good speech allow in a certain situation to achieve the task set for communication.
The culture of speech also implies the observance of etiquette of communication. The main concepts of this issue are the literary language, its norms, style and standard, types and forms of speech.
Qualities of correct speech
Qualities of good communicative speech possessa mass of signs. Correctness serves as the basis for such signs of good speech as wealth, purity, logic, accuracy, clarity, relevance, euphoniousness. This is a short list. He determines the qualities of good speech. Correctness is one of the main criteria.
Correct speech respects the existing norms of the language, for example, pronunciation, vocabulary, stylistics, morphology, syntax.
The richness of speech is determined by the presence in it of a variety of linguistic means. Its purity consists in the absence of non-literary words.
Precision as a component of the correctness of speech implies the correspondence of words to their actual values.
Logic can make speech intelligible. It must conform to the laws of logic, so as not to be confused.
Expressiveness evokes emotions, and clarity is an adequate understanding of what has been said. Simplicity will allow to communicate naturally, and relevance will make communication appropriate to the tasks of its implementation.
The quality of good speech briefly describes all these aspects.
Speech always correlates with non-speech structures. These links should be known for understanding its qualities. Speech is primarily related to language. These are not analogous concepts. Speech is built from the language and is subject to its laws. Language units gather in certain structures and form a speech.
Communicative qualities of good speech are inits relationship with thinking. Thought is formed and expressed in speech. This makes the communication logical, accurate. Speech corresponds with consciousness. It helps to see what is behind the words (imagery, expressiveness, relevance).
Speech is also correlated with reality. After all, communication describes objects, phenomena and events. It also relates to the addressee. The author of speech usually creates it for someone. He must make communication understandable to the listener.
Speech corresponds to the conditions of communication. It will be appropriate in some conditions, but in others there. This factor also plays an important role in understanding the criteria and qualities of good speech.
The main quality of a good conversational,technical, legal, medical speech and its other styles is correct. It can be accentological, semantic, formal, stylistic, etc. It is considered in the aspect of orthoepy and word formation.
Lexical correctness does not allow excessivepretentiousness of speech or its jargon. Morphologically correct formulation is determined by grammatical norms. Syntactic correctness concretizes concepts.
Stylistic correctness takes into account and choosesthose expressions, words and sounds that are characteristic of a certain communication. For example, the quality of a good legal speech will not be the same for a technical style.
Elite type of speech
The quality of speech should also be considered from the standpoint of its typology. The elite variety is the closest to the literary and ethical norms of communication.
Bearers of this speech style of communication easilyuse their vocabulary properly. It is great due to the possession of the cultural, literary, scientific values of mankind. The carrier of this style of communication due to his knowledge has a large passive and active vocabulary.
The owner of the elite type of communication has the ability to think what is achieved through a wide coverage of general cultural, fundamental texts. It is on them that such a person is guided in his speech.
The bearer of the elite type of communication constantly replenishes its qualities of good speech in Russian on the basis of authoritative texts, and not from newspapers and television.
The medium-literary type
The carriers of the medium-literary type of communication are the majority of the inhabitants of our country. These are people who have received higher or secondary education. This communication is the embodiment of a simplified culture.
A distinctive feature of this type of speechis the satisfaction of its owners with their own knowledge, the unwillingness to improve their culture of speech or to check the sources from which information comes.
The basic qualities of a good native speakermedium-literary type of communication were acquired in educational institutions and then forgotten, not improved independently. This leads to systemic speech errors. Sometimes such people are so confident in their rightness that they are even ready to defend their vision of the rules of speech, which often differs from the generally accepted standard. At best, when commenting on an error, the medium-medium-type communication medium will not pay attention to it, and at worst will take the criticism aggressively.
The basic information such people receive from statements in newspapers, in popular magazines, on radio or television. This knowledge is perceived as fundamental, they are equal.
This is an unfinished elite type, in which the criteria and qualities of good speech are respected, but not completely.
Conversational type of communication as a separate subspecies began to develop in the 90s of last century. It is divided into a literary-colloquial and familiar-colloquial type.
The carrier of this style of communication adheres to the colloquial manner of communication in any situation, even the official one. They are characterized by reduced speech to a greater or lesser extent.
In the literary-colloquial type, communication predominates over "you", and in the familiar-colloquial, rough statements are added.
Bearers of this manner of communication do not have a clue,what qualities good speech should have. They are used to talking at the level that is observed in their entire environment. Getting into a new environment for them, such people simply can not change the way they express their thoughts. After all, they simply do not have a different model of behavior.
Most often, these styles are spread by television, inviting people on a talk show to people who prefer a conversational manner of communication.
Orthographic and syntactic norms
There is an opinion that spelling mistakes in verifiable and unverifiable words should be treated with varying severity. In some cases, it is better to change the rule.
Speech is also considered from the perspective of the severity of the errors in it. There are norms that allow some deviation.
Bearers of an elitist type of communicationallow spelling and syntax errors. Maybe only a few non-structured deviations. At the same time, holders of the medium-literary style allow them much more, since they rarely look in the dictionary when writing texts, do not fill up knowledge about the appropriateness of punctuation marks.
People who communicate only with the help of conversational styles can make gross mistakes in the field of spelling and punctuation.
The qualities of good speech in the field of orthoepy are encountered in carriers of an elitist type of communication.
If they use accents in words not inaccording to the codified norm, it is only because the rules of the pronunciation for a specific word are generally accepted. Over time, such norms become official.
Mistakes are more rude in speechrepresentatives of the medium-literary type of communication. Such people can violate both orthoepic and formative norms. And later such distorted expressions are transmitted by people to each other in communication.
At times at carriers of colloquial type of speech of similar errors even it is less, than at the previous group of people.
Lexical and stylistic norms
It is difficult to determine the permissible boundaries for utterances from the point of view of vocabulary and stylistics. This is due to the disputable expediency of using, for example, expressive words.
The admissibility of the use of certain words should be determined from the position of the style of the text and its genre.
For example, there is even a dictionary of slangexpressions. However, the presence of such statements in speeches at official meetings will be unacceptable. Sometimes in rare cases such jargon is used for emotional coloring of speech. But it should be done with great care.
Taking into account the quality of good speech, you canimprove their manner of communication. It should be expedient and take into account the conditions of the environment. The speech should be understandable and effective for both the addressee and the addressee. It forms the thought, the consciousness of man. Increase the culture of communication will help to study the fundamental sources of information, the development of world literature and art. Do not take information from questionable, untested sources. A person must improve. In the field of his speech, this is simply necessary.