The concept and types of bank deposits, content
At the level of legislation, the concept and types of bank deposits are clearly defined. A bank deposit or deposit is cash or securities in any currency (foreign or ruble) that a natural or legal person transfers to a credit and banking institution for the purpose of generating additional income.
Accrued income is paid in cash, in the amount of a certain percentage agreed between the client and the bank itself.
The legislation of the Russian Federation stipulates that the deposit must be returned upon the first request of the depositor in the manner specified at the federal level and in the contractual documents between the parties.
Citizens of our country, foreigners and even stateless persons can act as depositors. A person who has entered into a deposit agreement has the right to independently determine where they wish to keep their money and to choose the types of bank deposits.A written contract is necessarily concluded between the client and the bank if the first one wishes to place a deposit.
A bank that accepts deposits must have an appropriate license to conduct such activities. It is issued by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. At the same time, a commercial structure must be registered with the organization that provides compulsory deposit insurance and the depositors themselves.
From the moment of registration of a banking institution, at least 2 years must pass. If the bank has passed the merger procedure, then the initial date of registration is the one that was held earlier. Also, a credit institution must meet other requirements:
- the amount of capital must be at least 3 billion and 600 million rubles;
- the bank must disclose information about persons who have a direct impact on decisions made by the governing bodies of the legal entity.
Types of deposits
Depending on the purpose, nature and other parameters, there are 4 types of bank deposits.
Depending on the shelf life
Term deposit. The main difference of such a contribution is a clearly defined return period.Earlier, it is possible to return funds (this right is provided for by the current legislation), but interest may be paid in part or not at all.
Demand deposit. This account is more like a regular one, from which you can withdraw funds either partially or completely at any time. But the interest that the client of the institution will receive is significantly less than the other deposits. This is due to the fact that the financial institution compensates for the risks that may be associated with the withdrawal of funds at any time, therefore, they will be withdrawn from circulation.
Seasonal deposits are the opening of an account at a certain point in a calendar year, for example, during the Christmas period. The main difference is the maximum rates, so they fall into the category of particularly profitable, although early withdrawal of funds implies a partial loss of interest.
By type of currency
According to the Russian legislation, the types of bank deposits are divided into:
If everything is clear with the ruble, then the currency deposit assumes its placement in foreign currency and the accrual of interest in it.
A multi-currency deposit is funds in three currencies that are held in any shares in the bank.The main goal is to minimize the possible risks associated with currency fluctuations. Three separate deposit accounts are opened and when the exchange rate falls, for example, the dollar, it is exchanged for another currency, while the interest rates remain unchanged.
When possible replenishment and withdrawal
Types of bank deposits and bank accounts are distinguished by the following parameters:
- accounts that can not be replenished throughout the term of the contract;
- accounts that can be replenished, but under certain conditions prescribed in the contract;
- accounts from which you can withdraw money, but in a certain amount, that is, the deposit should always have a non-declining balance.
By the nature of use
Savings deposit is a kind of way to collect a certain large amount of money to purchase expensive property, for example, to buy a car or to give. This type of bank deposit implies its periodic replenishment.
Savings deposits - the most traditional way of storing and receiving income from cash.
Calculated contribution. This can be said to be a modernized type of savings deposit.Under the conditions, the investor is entitled to withdraw a certain amount of funds from the account, but it is clearly limited. At the same time, interest rates do not change. Account can be replenished at any time.
Special programs. This means that the deposit is intended for a specific category of the population, for example, for students or pensioners. Most often, a pension is transferred to such an account, which can be withdrawn, and interest is accrued on the account balance for a certain period of storage.
Types of bank deposits can be non-standard, for example, metal. In this case, the equivalent of cash is any precious metal, and interest is also charged in proportion to its value. Although the contract does not imply the physical transfer of the metal to the bank, funds are deposited in an amount equivalent to a certain weight of a particular metal. Withdrawing a deposit involves the receipt of funds in the agreed currency. There is also the possibility of removing the metal itself, but the client will have to incur certain costs for the payment of VAT and for the manufacture of the ingot itself.
Index deposit product.In this case, a certain part of the investment is put in complete dependence on the underlying asset, for example, the Dow Jones index, the price of oil, is taken. The size of the revenue side will depend entirely on global fluctuations in the price of "black" gold.
Winning contributions. Such accounts do not imply interest accrual on each account, a draw is held, following the results of which the accrual is made only to one participant.
Agreement on the placement of funds in a banking institution
The transaction on placing a deposit in a bank must be made out in writing, this requirement is established at the level of federal legislation.
Bank deposit agreement: concept, content and types
The contract should be made in duplicate, it must necessarily display the following information:
- term of placement of funds;
- contract currency;
- initial deposit amount;
- the possibility of making additional funds.
From the text of the contract it should be clear that the investor has the right to receive income from the invested funds and the procedure for calculating interest.
The concept, elements and types of bank deposit agreement imply its division into the following features:
- accounts that can not be replenished;
- deposits, with the possibility of replenishment at any time, as long as the contract is valid;
- the contract provides for the possibility of a partial withdrawal of money, but on condition that the remaining funds will not be less than the established limit.
Interest may be charged monthly or at the end of the contract. The parties have the right to stipulate other periods of interest accrual and payment, for example, quarterly or once every six months.
The concept of a bank deposit agreement, types of bank deposits are clearly regulated by federal law. The tax code also provides for taxation of income received from deposit accounts in the following cases:
- if the interest rate on a ruble account is above 13% per annum;
- if the contribution is in foreign currency, then the tax will have to be paid when interest is charged in the amount of 9%
If we are talking about legal entities, the income tax will be 35%.
But, investors do not need to worry about the timing of filing a declaration and deducting taxes, this function is completely entrusted to the banking institution.