Republic of Chad: geography, population, area, capital, president. Central African countries
Africa, the second largest continent and the poorest, has long been in colonial dependence, which has delayed development. Today, about one billion people live on the continent and are divided into 5 economic and geographical parts: North Africa, Southern, Eastern, Western and Central.
Central African countries
There is no clear separation, and some organizations attribute countries to one part, and other organizations to another. According to one version, the list of Central Africa includes 12 states, including the Republic of Chad, as well as Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia, the Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic and Equatorial Guinea, Angola and Rwanda. The little known countries of Burundi and Sao Tome and Principe, an island nation.
One of the countries of Central Africa is Chad, which borders on such countries as Nigeria, Niger, Central African Republic, Libya, Cameroon and Sudan. The country has no access to the sea, occupies the 20th place in the territory and the 74th place in the population. Chad area is 1.2 million km2where the northern part is the Sahara desert, in the northeast there is the plateau of Erdi and Enedi, and in the south the Vadai massif.
The entire history of Chad, the flag of which consists of three colors, can be divided into three large periods: pre-colonial, during the possession of the territory by the French and the independence of the republic.
Sometime in the 9th century, the state of Kanem appeared near Lake Chad, which in two or three centuries began to occupy a vast territory. The top of this state adopted Islam and began to actively Islamize the inhabitants. But in the XIV century, the state ceased to exist, and only in the XVI century, to the east of the former settlement, another appeared, which was called Wadai, and the state of Bagirmi appeared in the south. These two states constantly fought among themselves, divided territories and slaves, and some of them sold the Ottoman Empire.This continued until, in 1899, France began colonization in the region of the lake.
In 1900, France defeated another state of Ramah, and in 1904 declared the conquered territory of France and annexed it to the colony of Ubangi-Shari. Until 1920, France continued to seize territory, and then the military administration changed to civilian.
During World War II, the French and Chadians fought against the German-Italian forces that were in Libya.
In 1946, Chad was declared an overseas territory, and in 1958 received the status of an autonomous republic. Two years later, independence was gained, and Francois Tombalbai of the Sarah tribe came to power. Tombalbai’s policy was such that he made all enterprises into state property, completely subordinated control to himself, which soon ceased to be liked by the people from the north, and mass demonstrations began, which led to a worsening economic situation.
In 1975, there was a military coup, and Tombalbai was killed. The government took Felix Mallum, who tried to end the war between the north and the south, and gave part of the power to Hissen Habré, the leader of the partisans.
But this did not last long, and already in 1979 there was an armed conflict between these rulers, and Gukuni Wedde seized power.
In 1980, Libyan troops entered the country of Chad, and Waddey, together with the Libyan leader Gaddafi, announced the creation of a Libyan-Chadian state. Conflicts continued until 1987, until Habré defeated Oedday’s troops. But in 1990, the capital of Chad was taken by General Idris Débi, who for a long time became the president of the country and remains to this day, winning elections every time.
In its geography, Chad is very different in different directions. If in the northern part the climate is tropical and desert, in the southern part it is equatorial monsoon. All this is also due to the fact that the northern part lies within the desert, and there are practically no rivers, but in the southern part there is a dense river network: the river Shari, Lake Chad and small rivers that are filled during the rains.
Due to the fact that the northern part is a desert, there is practically no vegetation there, only low-growing shrubs and camel thorn. Palm trees are found just below, even grapes and wheat are grown.
The same picture is with the fauna - in the north there are few animals, only those that can withstand high temperatures, large mammals, predators and snakes are found in savannas.
The Republic of Chad is presidential, headed by the president, and at the same time he is the chief commander. The president is elected by direct and secret ballot for a term of 5 years and an unlimited number of times. For over 25 years now, since 1990, Idris Déby, Lieutenant General, has been President.
The country also has a legislative power, which includes 155 deputies who are elected, but for 4 years. Since 2005, the upper house of parliament, the Senate, has been abolished. Despite the fact that the same person has long been leading the country, armed uprisings between the French and the Arabs are constantly breaking out. There are several anti-government groups that are not satisfied with the current situation, among them the opposition movement, which represents Habré, who once ruled the Republic of Chad.
Administration and Foreign Policy
The whole country was divided into 22 regions, although until 2008 there were 18 prefectures.There are only four major cities in the country: Mundu, Sarh, Abeche and the capital of N'Djamena, where 900 thousand people live, while the rest of the cities have no more than 150 thousand people. The flag of Chad is very similar to the Romanian one and consists of three colors: blue, yellow, red, each of the colors symbolizes sky, peace, hope, sun and desert, as well as unity and blood.
Chad only in the 60s of the last century became an independent state and still has not completely got rid of the colonial system. At first, the policy was focused on settling relations with neighbors, and then the financial state became heavily dependent on the developed countries, which provided assistance and dictated their own rules.
As of 2011, the population of Chad was 10 million and 700 thousand people. The main representatives are such peoples as Arabs, Tubu, Zagawa, but besides these more than two hundred ethnic groups live in the country. By religious composition, most people are Muslims, and animists and Christians are also found.
The official languages recognized in the country are French and Arabic, but since there are more than two hundred ethnic groups living in the republic, there are more than a hundred languages and dialects.
Life expectancy is very low, and for men it is 47 years, and for women it is 49 years, due to the fact that many residents are below the poverty line in terms of living standards. The urban population for 2007 was 27%.
The capital of Chad, N’Djamena, is one of 22 regions in the country Founded in 1900 by the French as a colony and military support point. The first name was Fort Lamy in honor of the French commander. First, the city was part of the colony Ubangui-Shari, then passed into the possession of French Equatorial Africa, and later became the capital of the autonomous republic of Chad, and since 1960 - an independent republic. The modern name is from 1973.
Already at the beginning of the XXI century the city tried to seize the troops of the united front, but they had to retreat.
The capital of the country, Chad, is not a classic city with a well-developed economy, education and culture. There are very few modern houses, and most people live in huts. Half of the population remains illiterate, although schools and universities are gradually opening. The population of 2009 was 950 thousand people, where several ethnic groups are represented - Daz, Arabs, and Hajarais.
The Republic of Chad became independent only in the 60s of the last century and for a long time it lost the status of a colony, therefore the development of the economy is very slow.
In terms of GDP per capita in 2009, Chad occupied only 196th place, despite the fact that minerals such as gold, oil, tin, copper, and uranium were found. Chad is highly dependent on the help of developed countries, and 80% of the population is below the poverty line.
Mostly working people are engaged in farming, raising livestock and growing crops such as cotton, rice, potatoes, millet.
Only in 2003 they began to produce oil, and since 2004 - to export, therefore, a small part of the population is involved in oil refining. In addition, the industry is concerned with cotton processing, meat processing, cigarette and soap production.
Foreign trade is mainly associated with the export of cotton, oil and livestock. The main buyers are the USA, France, Japan, Taiwan. Imported mainly industrial products, products and textiles.
Health and Education
Different spheres of life suffer greatly in the country due to the fact that not so long ago the republic of Chad became independent, and due to the fact that political life could not be improved.
All this applies to health care, because a high percentage of infectious diseases and parasitic diseases. So, very high rates of HIV and AIDS, and the growth rate is rapid.
Another problem that affects people's health and life expectancy is clean drinking water. Only 27% have constant access to purified water, the rest often suffer from enteric-infectious diseases. Only 29% of the population has the opportunity to receive medical care. In big cities there are medical institutions, in remote areas there are no hospitals or doctors who could provide first aid.
In the 1920s, the administration of the colony opened several schools and attempted to ensure that everyone could get primary education up to 12 years old. The training took place in French, except for religious studies. When the republic became autonomous, the government continued to keep the bar in order to obtain minimal knowledge.
But, despite the efforts and efforts, the level of education in the country remains low today, and when the civil war broke out in 2005, funding for various spheres, including education, was curtailed in order to send money for armaments.
Due to the difficult political and economic situation in the country, tourism in the Republic of Chad is at a low level, because the state is not interested in this and it is simply dangerous to come here. However, the main attractions of the country are natural monuments, such as Lake Chad, Leray, Aorounga crater, Tarso Voon volcano, the reserve Mandelia and others.
Only in the capital, N’Djamena, one can see several architectural buildings, such as the National Museum, the ancient city of Abeche and the Great Mosque.