Renaissance culture: music and painting
Renaissance culture was inherent inCentral and Western Europe in the time interval between the 14th and 16th centuries. During this period, the picture of the world has changed very radically: humanism has found its place in it. The culture of the Renaissance was based on antiquity. Precisely because this era was peculiar to revive the traditions of the ancient world, it was called the Renaissance or Renaissance era.
Even in the 13th century, art was not typicalto depict a person in general (the human image was used only when writing icons), it depicted only the relationship of man to God, and then in abstract forms. The architecture of that time was characterized by Gothic and disembodied.
But already at the beginning of the 14th century, art beginsradically change: N. Pisano changes the style of architecture, and the artist Giotto di Bondone begins to write completely new in style paintings: three-dimensional, more lively, cheerful, realistic, with clearly defined objects of the situation.
By the end of the 15th century, Renaissance culturereaches its heyday: many artists work in a new style, using perspective, trying to portray "the ideal person." In architecture, however, the Gothic style completely ceases to be used - it is replaced by the classical style, based on proportionality and balance.
Speaking directly about painting, it should be said that the artistic culture of the Renaissance is divided into several periods: Early, High, Later and Northern Renaissance.
A classic example of artistic cultureEarly Renaissance are paintings by Sandro Batticeli. Such canvases as "Birth of Venus", "Lamentation of Christ" and "Spring" not only made the artist's name immortal, but also became one of the first successful attempts to depict the beauty of the human body.
For the High Renaissance, there is an imageharmonious and free personality, this sort of ideal. One of the most outstanding artists of the time was Leonardo da Vinci - it is with his name that many people associate the culture of the Renaissance.
An ingenious artist, musician, architect,anatomist, sculptor, engineer, poet, seer - all this can be said about him. Many of his sketched but not implemented inventions are used in the modern world, and the mysterious Mona Lisa still excites the imagination of many.
For the Late Renaissance Mannerism is characteristic, not affecting only Venice. This period can be called a period of decline in culture.
The Northern Renaissance is related to late Gothic art. The most outstanding artists of this period were the following: Baldung Hans, Hieronymus Bosch, Hans Holbein, Peter Bruegel and Jan Van Eyck.
Musical Culture of the Renaissancesimultaneously and related to the art of the Middle Ages, and different from it. In Italy, during the Renaissance, the leading place still belongs to church canticle, but polyphonic singing has begun to develop, which made it possible to complicate musical works, making them more emotional and unusual.
The Netherlands was able to significantly develop itsmusical traditions, forming a polyphonic school. It was remarkable that she taught young musicians not only Dutch, but also English, French and Italian traditions.
In France, attention was paid to music not only in the form of church chants, but also in the form of a multi-voiced secular song, called chanson.
In Rome, as in the Netherlands, a polyphonic school was founded. A special feature of the Roman musical tradition was complex music and clear, clear text.
In Venice, the compositions were unusually lush and luxurious, and in England unprecedented popularity was gained by small home musical compositions.