Pistol PSM: specifications, photos
The history of the development of small arms in the Soviet Union and subsequently Russia boasts a large number of unusual ideas and concepts. Many of the structures developed by Russian gunsmiths were later used by almost the entire world, like the AK. This article will tell about a unique pistol, which is still actively used in the troops, despite its rather long existence. This is a self-loading small-sized pistol - PSM.
Perhaps now not to find such a gun as the PSM, the characteristics and design of which since the release in 1974 remain unchanged. These weapons are well known all over the world, and respect for them has also come by chance. This is the flattest pistol in the world - its width is only 18 mm, besides that it is very accurate and almost trouble-free. Yes, and to participate in various military conflicts, he had a lot.
History of creation
In the late 60s of the twentieth century in the Soviet Union began the development of a small-sized pistol for concealed carrying by officers and superiors of special services. The order was sent by the KGB to the design office of the TsNIITOCHMASH plant. Among other conditions, special attention was paid to the following: a small mass of future weapons (up to 0.5 kg), the possibility of concealed carrying, the absence of protruding parts and dimensions (thickness up to 18 mm).
The existing types of cartridges could not meet these requirements, so the question arose of developing a cartridge specifically for the new weapon. This was taken by a group of engineers, headed by Bochin AI. As a result of the work, a new cartridge appeared - the MOC, which stands for “small-sized pistol central combat”. He had a caliber of 5.45 x 18 mm, the assigned index - 7Н7. He was almost identical in characteristics to the cartridge PM, not inferior to him in anything. Thanks to the use of a pointed bullet, a new cartridge easily pierced body armor at close range, and had an excellent stopping effect.
Direct development of the gun
The PSM pistol was developed by Tula designers from TsKIBSOO L. Kulikov, T. Lashnev.I., Simarin A. A. The idea of the main layout of the pistol was borrowed from the foreign Walther PP.
In 1972, a competition was held, which tested two samples - the PSM and another pistol - the BV-025. According to the test results, the PSM won an unconditional victory, which showed excellent combat characteristics, high ergonomics and ease of control, balancing when shooting and accuracy, in accordance with the requirements. At the same time, the BV-025 was noticeably inferior to it in the quality of the work of automation and could not fully realize itself with the chuck of the MPC.
Already in August of the same 1972, the PSM pistol was approved for arming the special services and law enforcement agencies of the USSR. What is characteristic, he was immediately perceived positively by many employees. It was possible to instantly open fire from a pistol, and at the same time it had small dimensions. In addition, at a distance of 5-6 meters, the bullet of the MPC cartridge pierced all body armor at that time. However, his gun's penetration ability was considered insufficient, but the Americans using it had a completely different opinion. When tested in the West, it was established that the bullet, punching 30-45 layers of Kevlar, still has enough energy to inflict a mortal wound on a person. This caused serious concern to the US government and police.
Now this gun is still popular. Several successful samples were developed at its base, for example, IL-75, which only widened to 20 mm and gave a new sight, and also provided an indicator of the presence of a cartridge in the chamber. It was originally planned to sell it abroad. But since the MPT cartridge in the West is not common, we had to redo the gun for other cartridges. This is how the version of the MP-441 “Baikal” was created, which uses 6.35 mm Browning cartridges. It is much thicker (37 mm), due to the use of cheeks of a different design. The gunsmiths fulfilled all the requirements that the US government put forward. But in America, as well as in many foreign countries, it was banned because of its exceptional slaughter, he is widely known as the “gun for assassinations”. Now it is actively used as a sports weapon, although the fighting qualities of the PSM are still at a high level.
Pistol PSM has an automatic, working on the principle of recoil free shutter. The trigger mechanism of double action, with an open arrangement of the trigger, allows only single shooting.The flat frame of the gun is securely connected to the barrel. Like the PM, the return spring is simply worn on the barrel. Under the trigger mounted thrust and spring-whispered. With the help of a special protrusion on the sear, when setting the pistol on a safety device, the thrust block blocked the trigger. In the rear position, the bolt is limited to a special spring-loaded bracket.
The PSM pistol feeds on ammunition from a box-type single-shot magazine with a capacity of 8 rounds. When the ammunition was used up, the shutter retreated to the extreme rear position and was fixed, which accelerated the recharge process. The sighting device consists of a front sight and a rear sight. A safety catch locks the hammer and locks the bolt and trigger in the forward position. The checkbox is on the left side, near the back of the shutter. This makes it possible to immediately trigger the trigger when the fuse is turned off. When the fuse is triggered, the trigger immediately descends from the platoon. These features allow you to carry a gun, which even when fired, is ready to fire, for which he was loved by the security services.
A well-executed pistol grip allows the pistol to rest comfortably in your hand and hold it when firing. It is attached to the frame with a single stopper, which facilitates the assembly and disassembly of the gun without the use of tools. First, the cheeks of the handle were made of duralumin, and later became polyamide.
The gun has a long barrel, which gives excellent ballistic performance. The PSM pistol, whose characteristics were at the height of it, also has excellent operational indicators, which allow disassembling the weapon with the help of hands, while tools and any additional maintenance and equipment are not required.
PSM Pistol - Technical Specifications
The used cartridge is 5.45x18 mm of MPTs.
Total length - 155 mm.
Barrel length - 85 mm.
Weight (with an empty magazine) - 460 gr.
Weight (fully equipped) - 510 gr.
Thickness - 18 mm.
The initial speed of the bullet - 315 m / s.
Magazine capacity - 8 rounds.
Modifications and options
Today, many manufacturers are guided not only by the military, but also by the civilian arms market, which forces them to modify their designs.PSM is also popular among civilian gun owners.
Among his options are the gas pistol PSM, which is designed for self-defense and has been commercially available since 1993. It should tell a little about this sample. During its development, they simply changed the sleeve, adapting it to a 7.62 mm gas cartridge and made a smooth barrel. The new sample was called 6P37. The shutter was not subjected to any alterations, since the gas cartridge had the same sleeve as the combat one, only the shape was replaced with a cylindrical one, and the dulce was crimped in the form of an asterisk.
But his release was hampered by the fact that a permit issued by civilians in the 90s gave free access to such weapons and criminal circles. And to alter the gas pistol in the battle was not difficult. To do this, remove the separator and the muzzle sleeve, and the barrel was drilled under the desired cartridge. The frequency of these alterations led to the fact that by the beginning of 2000 the gas pistol had practically disappeared from the shelves of gun shops.
Traumatic version - "Mail"
Also available and traumatic pistol PSM. This is his modification of "Mail", designed for the cartridge with a rubber bullet of 9 mm RA.Since the caliber was larger than the standard PSM, then changed the design of the receiver and the feeder, which has become much thicker. The store's capacity has also changed - 6 rounds, although there are also pistols that have 7 rounds in the store. It is also worth noting that of all the modifications, the “Mail” is most similar to the original combat pistol. The difference can be found only by checking the stamp of the manufacturing plant. When reworking the trunk, two protrusions were added so that it was impossible to shoot something more solid than rubber, and also changed its density and geometry in order to avoid bullet energy sufficient to inflict a fatal wound. If you shoot him, for example, with live ammunition, the barrel is simply deformed and shooting will be impossible. This secured the weapon, not allowing it to be used as a combat weapon, thereby excluding the possibility of crime alterations. Today, "Kolchuga" - one of the most popular pistols for self-defense.
As can be understood from this article, a small-sized pistol PSM—This is one of those types of weapons that came out really successful.The prevalence not only in Russia, but also in the world suggests that this brainchild of Russian gunsmiths has a high combat potential, which even meets foreign standards. In addition, the PSM pistol (photos allow it to see) is very compact and convenient.