Personal hygiene of the skin. Skin hygiene of the child and adult
The skin not only serves as a protective shell of the human body, but also actively interacts with the external environment. In particular, it primarily takes the brunt of a multitude of irritants - chemical, physical and infectious, many of which can cause numerous pathological processes both on the skin and inside the body. Also, the epithelial cover is often the first indicator to signal that something is wrong with our health. Therefore, keeping skin clean is one of the main points in the complex of hygienic procedures.
Throughout a person’s life, the epithelial cover performs many functions aimed at preserving the health and vitality of the body:
- Participation in the general metabolic process.
- Performance as an organ of sense.
The skin protects the body from diverse negative influences of the external environment, which can cause both mechanical and viral damage to internal organs.
The skin largely reacts to temperature changes: in the cold, its vessels narrow, and the heat transfer decreases, during heat they expand, sweating and active radiation from the body of excessive heat begin.
Secretory and resorption functions
When the secretory function is the allocation of excess fluid in combination with the work of the sebaceous and sweat glands, and resorptive, on the contrary, the absorption of the missing amount of water to maintain the body's natural balance.
Although a person gets an overwhelming amount of2through the respiratory tract, however, the skin also participates in the oxygen saturation system — with its help, gas-exchange processes are activated.
The skin as an organ of sense
The skin reacts to touch, pain, heat and cold and by means of nerve endings transmits information to the brain. And already on the basis of the results of its processing, a person models a system of his behavior in a given situation.
In order for all the above functions to be carried out in a stable mode, in order to avoid disruptions in the body, careful skin care is necessary. Skin hygiene, or rather, its rules, has both certain features for different ages, and some common points.
As a result of pollution and damage, not only the skin, but also the entire body as a whole can earn multiple diseases. In this regard, both children and adults are recommended to follow some general rules of skin hygiene:
- daily washing and showering;
- the use of soft or ph-neutral hygiene products (baby soap, gels, wet wipes, foams);
- regular change of underwear and garments that have direct contact with the skin;
- if peeling occurs, it is necessary to lubricate the skin with a moisturizing cream or a special ointment;
- it is unacceptable mechanical removal of ulcers, acne, overgrown on the ground wounds and scratches;
- regular consumption of plant and dairy foods, vitamins;
- Avoid sources that cause allergic rashes on the skin (food, drinks, animal hair, clothes made from non-natural materials);
- if skin comes in contact with unknown plants, chemical reagents, wash out the contact area immediately;
- Do not allow frostbite and winding of the skin;
- wash your hands regularly with soap and water;
- wipe dry after water procedures;
- if possible, use removable shoes in the premises, avoid sweating or overcooling of the legs;
- daily walks in the fresh air lasting at least 20-30 minutes;
- moderate sunbathing or quartz treatment.
As you can see, standard skin hygiene is the implementation of a fairly simple set of rules, which should not be forgotten by either the child or the adult. However, the skin of these two age categories still has some differences, and, therefore, its own nuances of care.
Differences between adult and child skin
The skin of a child up to 7-8 years old is more susceptible to allergic reactions, it is too thin and tender, unlike an adult. It contains more fat cells and blood. Some functions of children's skin are still not fully debugged, but after 9 years some stability in the work of sweat and sebaceous glands begins to manifest itself.
The older a person becomes, the sooner the skin begins to fade. Over the years, it is less elastic, not so abundantly filled with blood, the work of the glands slows down or stops altogether. The upper epithelium dries, due to which wrinkles begin to erupt, pigment spots appear.
In this regard, the hygiene of the skin of the child has some features that must be paid attention to at an early age.
Hygiene rules for children
To care for the skin of children is necessary, since the very first weeks of his life. It is hardly worth explaining that at these stages he does not yet have sufficient immunity, and all the functions of the body are just beginning to develop.
The hygiene of the skin of the newborn must be carried out very carefully and delicately. It is carried out in accordance with some of the following conditions:
- nightly bathing;
- the use of certified cosmetics for newborns, in which no irritating skin and mucous membranes are present;
- as part of cosmetics should be absent: phenoxyethanol, sodium hydroxide, ethylene oxide, lauryl sulfates, various preservatives;
- when bathing it is possible to use natural plant extracts or a small amount of phyto oils;
- at strong pollution use of children's lotions is admissible;
- the use of milk for sun protection during walks in the open air;
- elimination of dry skin with baby cream or oil;
- regular change of diapers, soiled diapers and clothes;
- the use of soft sponges, napkins, cotton swabs and tampons, if possible not leaving villi;
- careful monitoring of the baby's body reactions to environmental factors (the occurrence of itching, allergic reactions, redness, diaper rash).
Skin hygiene for an already grown up child should become a familiar item in the daily routine. It is necessary to explain to the child what the non-observance of elementary rules may lead to. The sooner your child begins to understand the usefulness of these habits, the easier it will be for parents in the future - the need for constant monitoring will disappear, for example, whether the child washed his hands.
Features of adult skin hygiene
Personal hygiene of the skin of an adult person also has some features that can not be overlooked:
- bath can be taken 1-2 times a week with daily rinsing in the shower;
- if possible during the shower, try not to use soap, especially antibacterial - the composition of the current means is such that they can eliminate not only harmful microorganisms, but also useful ones;
- both men and women equally, regardless of skin type, should use moisturizing and nourishing creams, lotions;
- wash best with water at room temperature;
- Remember that the contrast shower is extremely useful - it keeps the skin tone, its elasticity and smartness;
- deep cleansing of the face with the use of cosmetics is recommended to be carried out once a week, with problem skin - twice;
- it will be easier to shave if you rinse your face with hot water before the procedure;
- blunted shaving machines are not only ineffective, but can also injure the skin by pulling hairs out;
- do not neglect swimming in a river, lake or sea, but make sure that the water is at a comfortable temperature and swimming is not prohibited;
- All creams, masks and other caring and indelible products are applied only on clean skin without cosmetics.
Hygiene of the skin of the head
Special attention should be paid to the issue of skin and hair hygiene. Virtually all people (with rare exceptions) have hair of various degrees of thickness on their heads. So that the scalp does not suffer, and the hair has a healthy appearance, it is necessary to care for them no less than the cover on the rest of the body:
- comb your hair regularly and correctly;
- use curlers, curling irons, hair dryers in the gentle mode;
- apply special shampoos, masks, balms, oils;
- It is best to wash your hair once a week;
- eliminate dandruff at its first manifestations;
- whenever possible avoid chemical perm and dyeing using ammonia agents.
Unfortunately, in everyday life we do not always pay enough attention to such an aspect as human skin hygiene. It is often forgotten that the main purpose of these rules is not beauty and the preservation of youth, but the improvement of the quality of life and life expectancy.