Pedagogical management in education
The Russian education system is an area in which various innovative concepts are being actively introduced. Among those - pedagogical management. It may seem that this phenomenon is compatible mainly with business or politics. However, it is possible to implement it in teaching practice. How? What are the most remarkable characteristics of this concept?
The concept of pedagogical management
What is pedagogical management in education? This term obviously means some processes associated with management. Traditionally, management is commonly understood as an activity carried out in a business or, for example, in politics. But lately, management in education has begun to gain popularity in Russia.
The management process involves the presence of the subject and object. This characteristic is also relevant for such a phenomenon as management in education. The subject of management in this case will be employees of the institution where the training programs are implemented.The object is the educational organization itself, as well as the processes taking place in it. The task of the corresponding type of management is to improve the educational process, increase its efficiency, and optimize the activity of the educational institution in terms of labor and financial costs in correlation with the required results.
Management in education can be characterized by national specificity. For example, in educational institutions in the United States, it is associated with the empowerment of school teachers with a significant amount of authority to plan and optimize the learning process. In Russia, in turn, employees of educational institutions - if we talk about state and municipal institutions, are obliged to generally adhere to programs approved at the regional or even federal level. As a result, Russian management in education becomes the prerogative of mostly private educational institutions. Although, of course, in some aspects of the organization of the educational process in public schools it can also be applied - for example, in terms of extracurricular activities or, as an option, the optimization of budget expenditures.
Systemic factors of pedagogical management
Modern researchers believe that pedagogical management in education is characterized by a number of factors influencing the mechanisms for its implementation. Among those:
- specifics of the backbone elements of management as an independent environment of social activity;
- management objectives;
- methods used by management entities;
- the tasks that face the manager in the education system;
- the key principles on which the teacher relies in building appropriate management communications;
- Functions characterizing pedagogical management;
- criteria for the quality of managerial activity.
Some researchers believe that the factors of pedagogical management can also include the performance of school employees aimed at the implementation of relevant managerial activity. We now examine the factors that characterize management in the field of education, in more detail.
The status of the backbone elements in pedagogical management, of course, will have its subjects and objects.The first will be employees of educational organizations in various positions. These may be school principals, their deputies, teachers. The objects of activity within the framework of pedagogical management are, in turn, students. In some cases, within the framework of these categories, subordination may occur, as a result of which subjects may temporarily acquire the status of objects - for example, if we are talking about the relationship between the director and the school staff subordinate to him.
The next system-forming element, which includes management in education, is an educational process and communications directly related to it, characteristic of the school, for example, pedagogical councils. Participation in relevant events, in one way or another, is taken by all the subjects and objects of pedagogical management. The educational process is the most important backbone element, consolidating the interests and priorities of individuals who are involved in social communications as part of the implementation of educational programs.
The next factor we noted is management objectives. What could be the reason for the introduction of pedagogical management mechanisms in this or that educational institution? Much depends on the specific level of curriculum.Thus, management in vocational education, implemented in universities and colleges, can be aimed at improving the efficiency of students' mastering various applied skills. If we are talking about the educational process in a comprehensive school, the introduction of relevant management practices may be due to the need for more efficient use of budgetary funds - for example, in terms of the procurement of materials, the distribution of working hours.
The purpose of the use of certain management approaches may be due to the need to introduce any innovations in the education system. This initiative is often accompanied by some expected positive results. Most often, the involvement of innovative methods of pedagogical management is associated with the solution of a particular problem, which is characteristic of the educational system as a whole, a specific curriculum, or reflects the specifics of an individual educational institution.
It is possible that the goals of introducing the concepts of pedagogical management will be localized, that is, aimed at achieving results in a specific lesson, series of classes or curriculum on a single subject.For example, if a school teacher is faced with the task of preparing children for the annual test, he can plan the content of the preceding lessons accordingly, so that the students gradually master the necessary skills to solve the tasks that are likely to be present at the test.
The goal of introducing pedagogical management methods may be the implementation of educational programs. For example, those that are associated with the preparation of children of the senior classes for service in the armed forces. Methods of pedagogical management in this case can be aimed at optimizing the schedule of relevant classes for the main ones, which are provided for by the school curriculum, or scheduling necessary extracurricular activities, such as drill training in army units.
Another significant factor in pedagogical management is the methods employed by its subjects. There are a lot of approaches to their classification. Among the most common:
- economic (involving the optimization of budget expenditures in correlation with curricula);
- administrative and administrative (through such subjects, pedagogical management can give orders to the objects);
- socio-psychological (implying the use of effective communication algorithms between subjects and objects).
As a rule, the noted methods are used in various combinations or all at the same time.
The next system element is the task of the manager in education. Most often they are presented in the following list:
- to form the tools necessary to achieve the goals;
- prepare the necessary personnel;
- get the necessary resources for use - financial, organizational;
- implement selected management concepts in practice;
- analyze the effectiveness of the work.
Of course, this range of tasks can be expanded, supplemented, concretized.
Principles of pedagogical management
Fundamentals of management in education include algorithms on the basis of which the principles of relevant managerial activities are formed. In many ways, they are subjective, that is, each participant in the educational process can determine them on the basis of personal priorities.But it is possible to single out general principles that are widespread and practiced in Russian pedagogical management. We study them in more detail.
First, it is the principle of rationalism. The actions of the manager in the education system should be aimed primarily at improvements that can be observed in the form of specific indicators - for example, in terms of real savings of budgetary funds due to more efficient organization of the educational process. The teacher must formulate educational programs based on specific indicators and identifying those that need to be improved in priority order.
Secondly, it is a principle of social orientation. It does not matter whether management is implemented in preschool education, at the level of secondary educational institutions or in universities - the activity of the teacher should be aimed at achieving socially significant goals. Those that are important both for local societies, such as a single class, group, course, and for society as a whole.
Thirdly, it is the principle of stability. In the implementation of the concepts of pedagogical management, those methods should be chosenwhich are able to provide sustainable results with repeated use of them under the same conditions. Of course, if we are talking about some completely new approaches that have not been tried before, then an experiment is possible, but it should not violate the functionality of the social communications established by that time and the structure of existing curricula.
A consistent approach to innovation
In this sense, innovation management in education should not be revolutionary. If we are talking about, say, the introduction of distance learning methods, their one-time involvement in all school curricula may not be the most rational step. It should be adapted only to those disciplines in respect of which the appropriate communication mechanism is best suited - for example, this may apply to computer science classes.
The next most important element of pedagogical management is functions. Modern researchers identify several such.
First of all, it is a planning function. It is important in terms of consistently solving the goals and objectives set by the leadership of a school or other educational institution.For example, if the goal of introducing relevant management concepts is professional retraining, management in education can be used as a tool for drawing up an algorithm for its implementation, adapted to current curricula. That is, teachers who work at school can attend necessary retraining classes, while someone can always replace them in the main workplace.
The motivating function of pedagogical management is extremely important. It consists in the formation of an increased interest in learning among students. In practice, this may be expressed, for example, in the introduction of innovative concepts. Among those that require the involvement of a wide range of tools that management in education contains are distance learning. As we noted above, an appropriate format for the implementation of curricula should be introduced into school practice gradually, so that the effectiveness of its use is sustainable. Pedagogical management in distance learning can also be useful in order to adapt students to the innovations of the educational process in terms of their discipline.The considered format of passing educational programs may involve students not in the classroom, but at home or, for example, on the territory of another educational institution, as a result of which children's perception of the educational process may be somewhat different than when they master the material in the classroom.
Another important pedagogical management function is the controlling one. Its essence is in the implementation by the subject of management, monitoring the activity of objects, both in the process of implementing these or other decisions, and in order to verify their execution upon the fact of a corresponding modernization of the educational process.
Quality Management Criteria
The next element of pedagogical management is the quality criteria for relevant activities. Researchers list the following:
- practical efficiency, traced by the example of specific figures (budget savings, improvement in the average grade of academic achievement);
- the level of positive social perception of the introduced concepts (among the subjects and objects of pedagogical management);
- the presence of indirect indicators of improving the quality of the educational process (for example, a greater percentage of high school graduates who entered prestigious universities).
As we noted above, among the possible tasks in the solution of which management in education can be involved is the retraining of specialists. In this case, the criterion of the effectiveness of the relevant concepts may be the growing interest in teachers working in the school from other educational institutions of the city.