Materialism is a doubt in the material?
Materialism is a philosophical trend thatDenies the spiritual essence of things, relying primarily on the evolutionary component in the genesis of the external world in relation to man. The characteristic features of this approach is the complete denial of the existence of God and other higher substances.
In addition, for materialists, it is not so muchcomprehension of the essence of the processes occurring around, but rather a search for a logical and pseudoscientific explanation of the origin, existence of the physical space. In this sense, it can be argued that materialism is the doctrine of the corporeality of the world and things in this world. For comparison: idealism, with its concept of primeval essence of the higher ideal (no matter in what form it resides), the main bet makes self-knowledge of the ideal, the search for God within himself. In other words, for the representatives of materialism, the main category is the physical world as an objective reality, for the idealists the human "I" as the spiritual projection of higher forces.
Human consciousness and the physics of the world
Negation of the spiritual principle led to the fact thatmaterialists, beginning with the Renaissance, were required to somehow inscribe human consciousness in the evolutionary physics of everyday reality. And then a problem arose, because the Christian world view did not allow to completely deny the divine essence of man. The way out was found in the search for a moral and ethical ideal - this way the humanists went, turning materialism into philosophy into the prototype of social and political theory. Later, French thinkers only formalized the concepts they had developed into proto-modern theories of law and constitutionalism. Materialism is ethics and law. Thus, the value era of the 15th-18th centuries can be conditionally designated.
The revival of materialism clearly posed the question: what is primary and what is secondary? It turned out that materialism is not only a search for general laws of the development of nature, but also a definition, more precisely, an awareness of the primary source of the world. Vulgar materialism was looking for primordial matter, in fact, it was an extension of the Greek tradition (Democritus, Empedocles). Consistent materialism proceeded from the mechanical principle of explaining objective laws that exist outside of human consciousness. However, paradoxically, it is the consistent materialism that transits materialist dialectical material that came to a conclusion about the phenomenological nature of matter. According to this logic, which was finally laid by V. Lenin, it turned out that the surrounding reality is only a representation existing in our consciousness, and the consciousness itself is an objective reality. And this, in turn, meant that the external world can be constructed in its own image and likeness. As a result, the place of God was occupied by a man, which was especially well traced in Soviet Marxism.
In addition, we must not forget that theorymaterialism changed significantly after R. Descartes introduced his principle of doubt. It turned out that all the logical arguments of the materialists, however, like other philosophers, do not go beyond the logical circle: if one recognizes consciousness as part of the objective world, the cognition of this very objective world is possible only through an individual consciousness. To break a circle means to recognize some things not only as objectively existing, but also to believe in them. And this means that the source of any materialistic conception is the idealist position of the philosopher himself.