Literary analysis of odes "Felitsa". Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin, an ode "Felitsa"
The history of the creation of the ode "Felitsa" is interesting becauseGabriel Derzhavin in desire to please the Empress took as a basis of his work her own work, shortly before it was published in a small print run. Naturally, in a brightly talented poet this story played more juicy colors, besides this, introducing a new style into the history of Russian versification and making the poet a celebrity.
Analysis of odes
"Felitsa" is equipped with a subtitle, which specifiesthe purpose of writing this work. It refers to the appeal to the wise princess of the Tatar murza, who settled in Moscow, but is on business in St. Petersburg. Also, the swindler is mystified by the fact that the ode, allegedly, was translated from the Arabic language. An analysis of the "Felitsa" odes should be started with a name that neither Russian nor Arab sounds sound.
The fact is that this is how she called her heroineCatherine II in his tale of Tsarevich Chlor. Served the soil Italian language (here you can remember someone like Cutugno with the exclamation of "Felicita") Latin translates the word "Felitsa - felicitas" as happiness. Thus Derzhavin from the first line began to extol the empress, then could not resist the satire in the descriptions of her surroundings.
Analysis of the odes "Felitsa" shows the installation onordinary, accepted in those days solemn laudatory ode to the date. Written by the traditional stitching of odes - the ten-tenths, and, as it should, the four-legged iambic. But before Derzhavin, no one has dared to merge two opposite genres of the same purpose: a majestic eulogy and a caustic political satire.
The first was an ode "Felitsa". Derzhavin, as it were, "stepped back" in his innovation, judging by the precisely executed conditions of the genre, at least in comparison with the "Poems for Birth," which even the stanzas are not divided. However, this impression disappears as soon as the reader overcomes the first few stanzas. Still, even the composition of the ode "Felitsa" represents a much wider order of artistic synthesis.
Fairy tale "Felitsy"
It is interesting to consider what motivated the motivesDerzhavin to write this "fanfic", which served as the first principle and whether this topic was worthy of continuation. Apparently, it is worthy, and very. Catherine II wrote her fairy tale for her grandson, so far malenkogo, but in the future the great Alexander I. In the fairy tale of the Empress it is a question of the Kiev prince Chlora, who visited the khan of Khan, to check whether the prince is as clever and clever as he is said.
The boy agreed to pass the test and findthe rarest flower - a rose without thorns - and set out on a journey. On the way, answering the invitation of Murza Lentiag (speaking name), the prince tries to resist the temptations of that luxury and idleness, with which he is seduced by the Lazy Man. Fortunately, this Kirghiz khan had a very good daughter, who was called Felice, and an even better grandson, whose name was Rassudok. Felitsa sent a son with the prince, who came out with the help of Reason for the goal of his journey.
Bridge between a fairy tale and an ode
Before them was a steep mountain, without paths and stairs. Apparently, the prince himself was sufficiently persistent, because, despite his tremendous work and trials, he nevertheless climbed to the top, where he decorated his life with a rose without thorns, that is, virtue. Analysis of the ode "Felitsa" shows that, as in any fairy tale, the images here are conditionally-allegorical, but Derzhavin at the beginning of the ode rises very tightly, and all the odic origins of classical specimens, where the ascent to Parnassus and communication with the muses, inevitably fade with seemingly simple images of a child's tale.
Even a portrait of Catherine (Felice) is given absolutely ina new manner, which is completely different from the traditional laudatory oudis. Usually in ode the honored character appears in a less expressive image of the goddess, marching through the solemn, echoing rhymes of the verse with heavy rhythmic dyspnea. Here the poet is inspired, and - most importantly - equipped with poetic mastery. Poems do not limp and are not inflated with excessive pathos. The plan for the "Felitsa" odes is such that Catherine appears before the reader as a clever but simple and active Kirghiz-Kaisat princess. Well played on the harmony of building this image and contrast - the image of Murza, vicious and lazy, than Derzhavin enjoys throughout the ode. Hence the unprecedented genre diversity, which distinguishes the ode "Felitsa".
Derzhavin and the Empress
The position of the singer here also changes with respect tothe subject of chanting, if we consider not only all previous Russian literature, but even the verses of Derzhavin himself. Sometimes a certain kind of godlikeness of the queen still slips in the clothes, but with all this and with the general respect that the "Felitsa" ode shows, the content also shows a certain shortness of the relationship, not familiarity, but the warmth of a near-kin.
But in the satirical lines Derzhavin sometimescan be understood dual. Collective features of Murza's image ridicule all of Catherine's grandees in turn, and it is here that the poet does not forget himself. Auto-irony is all the more rare in the poetry of those years. The author's "I" is not without lyrics, but it is clearly made clear that "That's Felitsa, I'm corrupt!", "Today I rule myself, tomorrow I'm a slave to whims." Appearance of such author's "I" in clothes is a fact of great artistic significance. Lomonosov also started ode with the "I", but as a loyal slave, and Derzhavin's author - a concrete and lively.
A narrative from the author
Naturally, the composition of odes "Felitsa" could not standwould be a full-fledged author's individuality. Derzhavin often submits under the author's "I" a conditional image of the singer, which is usually always present in odes as well as in satires. But there is a difference: in clothes the poet plays only a sacred delight, and in satire only indignation. Derzhavin combined single-string genres with the creation of a living man-poet, with an absolutely concrete life, with a variety of feelings and experiences, with "multi-stringed" verse music.
Analysis of the ode "Felitsa" certainly not only notesdelight, but also anger, blasphemy and praise in one bottle. In the course of time has time to dissemble, ironic. That is, behaves throughout the work as a perfectly normal and living person. And it must be noted that this individual personality has unquestionable features of the nationality. In the clothes! And now such a case would be unprecedented, if someone in our time would write odic verses.
Ode "Felitsa", the content of which is so richcontradictions, like warm sun rays warmed by an easy colloquial speech from the reality of everyday life, easy, simple, sometimes joking, which directly contradicts the laws of this genre. Moreover, there was a genre revolution, almost a revolution.
It should be clarified that Russian classicism did not knowpoems as "just poetry." All poetry was strictly divided into genres and species, sharply demarcated, and these boundaries stood unshakably. Ode, satire, elegy and other kinds of poetic creativity could not mix with each other.
Here the traditional categories of classicism are brokencompletely after the organic merger of odes and satires. This applies not only to "Felitsa", Derzhavin did this before, and later. For example, the ode "To the death of Prince Meshchersky" is half an elegy. Genres become polyphonic with the easy hand of Derzhavin.
A tremendous success went to this dress right afterpublication: "Everyone who can read in Russian, she found herself in the hands" - according to the contemporary. First, Derzhavin was careful not to publish the ode widely, trying to hide the authorship (probably the portrayed and highly recognizable grandees were vindictive), but then Princess Dashkova appeared and printed Felitsa in the magazine Sobesednik, where Catherine II herself did not hesitate to cooperate.
The Empress liked the ode very much, she evencried with delight, ordered immediately to expose the authorship, and when this happened, she sent Derzhavin a gold snuff-box with a dedication and five hundred chervontsi in it. It was after this that the real glory came to the poet.