Lexical compatibility of words

Words in speech are used not in isolation, inone, but in combinations. Not all of them freely connect with each other. Lexical compatibility of words is their ability to connect with a certain range of other words. Sometimes, because of the complexity of this choice, lexical errors are allowed in the speech.

In the sentence, words are related to each othermeaning, and grammatically. In the latter case, such a connection ensures grammatical correctness of speech. Semantic connections provide the correctness of the utterance in content. The words used in speech must be consistent with others. This is expressed in two types of compatibility - lexical and semantic.

Lexical compatibility means the ability of words to enter into combinations only with a limited number (or units) of words.

Semantic is expressed in the ability of wordscorrelate with a whole class of other words that unites the common sense. For example, a group of verbs describing a person's state (think, laugh, etc.), can be combined with all the words that denote people (doctor, passer-by).

In some cases, when it is not a question of specificthings, and their relationship (abstract, abstract vocabulary), then lexical compatibility is conditional. For example, you can "give advice," "inspect," "resist", etc. All these verbs play one role, they can easily be replaced by synonyms ("advise", "inspect", "resist"), but it is almost impossible to confuse them. A Russian-speaking person will never say, for example, "produce advice".

The language consciousness of a person is endowed with electoralforce. This property has been formed for centuries, in the process of everyday practice. However, in order to use words correctly in a speech, knowing their meanings is not enough. It is necessary to pay attention to the compatibility of words when composing phrases. You have to be careful with synonyms. For example, the adjectives "authentic" and "true" are identical in meaning, but we do not say "true friend" or "true document", because a true friend and documents can be genuine. This is the lexical compatibility.

Examples of such word compounds are veryare numerous. Often they may have limitations in combinations. First of all, they may simply be incompatible in meaning: "overland restaurant", "orange hare", etc. In addition, incongruity can be due to their grammatical nature ("beautiful singer", "my house") or lexical features (you can "cause grief", but you can not say about joy, we say "all year round", but not "round the clock ").

Sometimes impaired lexical compatibilityis perceived rather comical ("the near past"). However, in literary works, violations are used consciously to achieve certain effects: to strike the reader, pay attention to something, amuse, etc. For example, "the merry widow", "hung with beards", "forgiveness of others' virtues", "the last attack of youth", etc. In this case, consider incongruity is necessary as a stylistic device.

Some variants of incorrect compatibilityare of a mass character (very often different people use them in speech with the same mistakes): "the meeting is convened" (it is necessary: ​​"the meeting took place"), "develop the horizon" (need: "broaden the horizon"). This is due to the fact that in one situation different stable word combinations can be used, and often the replacement of components leads to a semantic inaccuracy. The traditional phrase "Allow me to raise a toast!" Is also incorrect. You can either "raise a glass" or "say a toast."

Also, the typical error in which lexical compatibility is violated is the phrase "service level has improved." The level can be improved, but quality can improve.

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