Laser and inkjet printer: the principle of printing

In the domestic environment are popular laser and inkjet printers. The principle of printing such devices is fundamentally different, which can not affect the operational features. In some cases it is best to use laser products, and in others - jet. However, to make a final choice in favor of a device is possible only after reviewing the scheme of work.

Inkjet printer: the principle of printing

The principle of operation of the inkjet device for printing

Still, at home, most often used inkjet printer. The principle of printing it is to form an image using liquid ink. They are transferred to the carrier through special nozzles located on the head. The number of such holes depends on the model of the printing device. Usually their number varies between 16-64 pieces.

Since the principle of printing an inkjet printer involves the use of liquid ink, with prolonged downtime, they dry out at the nozzles of the head.This requires cleaning the printing element, which implies an additional consumption of coloring matter.

Such devices consist of the following components:

  • supporting structure;
  • power supply;
  • print head;
  • cleaning system;
  • media supply devices;
  • control node.

A color image is obtained by overlaying three basic colors. Black ink is often added to them in order to be able to use devices for the usual printing of texts and black-and-old drawings, saving on color inks.

The principle of printing inkjet and laser printer

Basic inkjet technology

Different models may have their advantages and disadvantages. The principle of printing of inkjet printers may also differ slightly depending on the technology used. The only difference is in the method of transferring ink to solid media.

  1. The piezoelectric method involves the formation of ink points on paper with the help of special devices that are connected to the diaphragm. The electric field has a direct effect on the piezoelectric element, and it expands the tube to fill the capillary system.The main advantage is the flexible management of the size of the drop, which makes it possible to obtain high-quality images with high resolution.
  2. The method of gas bubbles implies the presence of heating elements directly in the nozzles. An electric current is passed through them. In the process of heating gas bubbles are formed, which push the desired portion of liquid ink through the holes. After cooling the heater through the nozzle receives a fresh portion of the coloring matter. High quality is noted in the detailed drawing of lines, but when printing continuous areas there may be slightly vague places.
  3. Thermal jet method, as in the previous case, involves the use of a heating element. However, a special mechanism is used with it, which allows for more rapid injection of coloring matter. In this regard, increases the performance of devices. The color palette of the resulting image is contrast.

Applied ink can have a different composition. Aqueous ink contains a soluble dye and certain additives that allow viscosity to be adjusted.Their advantage is low cost. Pigment inks are resistant to ultraviolet and wet environments. Print quality in this case is less dependent on the media.

Properties of the printer: the principle of printing - inkjet and laser

Use continuous ink supply

With the principle of printing an inkjet printer, everything became clear. For storage of dyes are special cartridges. However, there is a special system that allows you to provide a continuous supply of ink in order to save. In this case, capsular reservoirs are mounted directly on the printhead.

The system is a set of containers connected by a silicone train, through which ink is supplied from donors to the main unit. Thanks to such a device, a constant presence of initial dyes in the print head is achieved. Many large-format office appliances have an integrated ink supply system that cannot be seen from the outside.

Principle of printing inkjet printer briefly

The principle of operation of the laser device

A completely different branch of the development of printing devices is laser technology, with which you can achieve high-quality application of dyes on paper.The formation of symbols and images occurs due to the beam illumination of the elements of the device with photosensitivity. The received copies with textual or graphic information are resistant to fading and abrasion.

At inkjet and laser printers the principle of printing is completely different. As dyes are toners that can be transferred to a solid carrier in three ways.

  1. Using a two-component manifestation system. The dye particles required for transfer to a special photosensitive drum are not able to be fixed on the magnetic shaft without special magnetic media being charged as a result of mixing.
  2. With the use of single-component toner without additional impurities. Particles of matter in this case are endowed with magnetic properties. In some devices, electrostatic application may occur. With this option, the toner does not require magnetization.
  3. Using a two-component coloring matter, mixed in the factory.

Unlike an inkjet printer, the principle of printing a laser analogue is based on building an image using a photographic method.The laser beam hits a special shaft, the surface of which is electrified due to impact ionization of the internal air.

The principle of printing inkjet and laser printer: informatics

The design of laser devices

Laser printers manage to get high-quality printing due to technological features. They include the following elements.

  1. The photodrum which is an aluminum cylinder. It is treated with photosensitive material, which tends to change the electrical resistance in the presence of light.
  2. Magnetic shaft is used to transfer the toner from the reservoir directly to the drum or the developing roller installed in some models of modern printers.
  3. The doctor blade performs the function of a cleaning blade. It is used to remove excess dye from the raster shaft. It can be made of plastic, steel or fiberglass.
  4. The waste toner bin is made in the form of a container. This compartment may be separate from or with the cartridge. The filling speed of such a tank depends on the quality of the toner.
  5. The laser unit is designed to create an invisible image on the surface of the drum with the help of illumination of specific areas. The intensity of the beam can vary significantly.
  6. The primary charge roller is made in the form of a metal rod covered with a layer of rubber. This element allows you to ensure the uniformity of the negative charge.
  7. The transfer ribbon is necessary for applying an intermediate result from color cartridges.
  8. The development unit allows you to transfer toner directly to an electrostatic image created on the surface of a photoconductive element.

Laser printing process

Not everyone fully understands the principle of printing laser printers from computer science courses. Inkjet devices work according to a simplified scheme, so there are no special questions on them. How does the process of laser printing?

  1. First, the photoconductive shaft is charged. An electric charge is uniformly distributed over its surface by rotating the roller. A rotating rod system reduces stress and reduces the amount of ozone released.
  2. Laser scanning is performed. At this moment, the charged surface of the shaft passes under the light beam. The laser gets only on those places where the coloring matter will be applied in the future.
  3. Toner overlap is performed.A video having a negative charge transfers it to the toner. The dye from the bunker is attracted directly to the magnetic shaft, after which it comes into contact with the photoconductive element in those areas where there is a negative charge.
  4. A positive charge is fed to a portable roller in contact with a solid carrier. Particles of coloring matter fall on the surface of the paper due to electrostatic effects.
  5. The toner distributed on the carrier is fixed by means of heat and the pressure created. The thermal chamber consists of two shafts between which the paper moves. Temperature is controlled by a special sensor. The dye is melted and embedded in the texture of the paper.

Printing principle of inkjet and laser printer briefly

comparison table

It is proposed to look at the table to compare the properties of inkjet and laser printers, the principle of printing which is very different.


Printer type



Text printing



Get color images in the form of charts and graphs



Printing photos






Number of pages printed after replacing cartridges



Recommendations for operating inkjet devices

Having reviewed briefly the principle of printing an inkjet printer, it is impossible not to note the features of operation.

  1. It is not recommended to use the device less than once a week to avoid ink drying.
  2. It is necessary to purchase high quality dyes, otherwise the head can become clogged quickly.
  3. Use suitable paper, it should be marked that it is suitable for inkjet printing.
  4. It is required to keep the product clean, as dust leads to wear of moving parts.

Features of work with laser devices

The main advantage of laser printers is the lack of need for regular operation. It can even be used once a month. It does not affect the quality of work or wear of parts. However, it is necessary to use only original toner cartridges, otherwise there is a high risk of damage to the device. In addition, third-party supplies may simply not work.

Laser printer: dignity

Recommendations for selection

Before purchasing a device with a lot of positive reviews, you need to know additional information about the cost:

  • Supplies;
  • wear parts;
  • single page prints.

Sometimes it turns out that it is easier to purchase a new device than to replace any parts.

Final part

Having considered briefly the principle of printing inkjet and laser printers, it is possible to draw certain conclusions about the acquisition of certain devices. However, the final choice will depend on what goals are pursued during operation. To print large amounts of textual information, it is more profitable to buy laser devices. If it is necessary to obtain high-quality photos, it is better to give preference to jet analogues.

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