Krasnodar Territory: soil, climate, relief
The lands of the Krasnodar Territory are spread over the territory of the south-western foothills of the North Caucasus. They have common borders with the Rostov region, Stavropol and Abkhazia. The region is washed by the Black and Azov Seas. Its area exceeds 70,000 km ². The population is 5 million people. Half of the inhabitants settled in cities, the rest are engaged in agriculture.
Modern Krasnodar Territory occupies the territory of the former Black Sea and Kuban provinces. In 1937, he received his current status. In 1991, Adygea came out of its composition. The main river of the region is the Kuban. It feeds many small tributaries. Among them are Urula, Belaya, Laba. In the district there are several artificial reservoirs. Near the reservoirs is Lake Abrau. The Kuban lands abound in salty estuaries, which are concentrated on the Taman peninsula.
The waters of the seas are rich in fish. In the Black live dolphins. It harvests mullet, herring, hamsa, horse mackerel and mackerel.Azov is famous for sprat, sprat, perch, bream and carp. Its water area is less salty, the depth is less, and the temperature is higher.
The climate of the Krasnodar Territory is subtropical. It is most vividly represented in the territory that stretches along the Caucasus ranges from Tuapse to Adler. The steppe zone is dominated by the temperate. Mountains overgrown with grasses serve as a reliable shield that covers the coast from cold air masses. At the same time they retain moisture entering the region from the Atlantic.
Winter in these parts is warm and short. Snow falls a little, stable cover is not formed. Frequent thaws bring rain. Air temperature usually exceeds 0 ° C. Severe winters with frosty nights in Kuban are considered rare. The exceptions are the steppe and flat territories. December nights are especially short. The thermometer column during this period keeps at a mark of 8 ° C.
The coolest month is January. The air on the coast cools down to 7 ° C. In February, everything speaks of the imminent arrival of spring. The climate of the Krasnodar Territory differs in the early and hot summer, so the off-season periods in these places last for just a few weeks. Spring is the time of floods. Its first half is usually cool.In March, violets bloom, dandelion and nettle shoots appear. The present Kuban summer comes to the region in May. At the end of the month the swimming season opens. The thermometer is increasingly holding above 25 ° C.
Chilly autumn is set in November. Cold winds are blowing from the sea, rain is drizzling. Gray clouds cover the sky. The sun looks out for a few hours, and then hides behind a veil of lead clouds again. At this time, resort life freezes. The beaches have long been empty, and the snow has not yet fallen in the mountains.
The relief of the Krasnodar Territory on the third consists of rocks. Two thirds occupy the plain. The maximum height of the peaks of the mountain range reaches in the area bounded by the river bed Mzymta and the foot of the peak Fisht. The local lands have characteristic features of the Alpine type. Limestone deposits are located in the north-west, in the vicinity of Lago-Naki, in the south-east in the floodplain Khosta.
The relief of the Krasnodar Territory is represented by an abundance of karst mines, mud volcanoes of the Taman Peninsula, sloping plain of the Kuban, folded ridges of the Caucasus. In the eastern part of the region, the Stavropol Upland originates.The maximum height of the peaks of the mountain range is 3 360 meters above sea level. It is fixed on the top of Akaragvarta. Pseashkho is slightly lower, its “height” is 3,256 m. Fisht reaches 2,867 m.
The presence of extinct volcanoes indicate mud lakes, which are formed in the vents. Their lion's share is concentrated at the confluence of the Black and Azov Seas. The most popular mud springs in the population are located in Kuchugury, Golubitskaya and Temryuk.
The soils of the Krasnodar Territory are diverse. Scientists identify four main groups. Fertile black soil belongs to the lands of the plain steppes. In the foothills and forest-steppe gray, brown, sod-calcareous, brown soils predominate. In the west of the steppes of the Kuban and in the river deltas you can find meadow and marsh, alluvial sediments. There are solods, salt marshes and salt marshes.
The soils of the Krasnodar Territory are not only of natural origin, but also artificial. We are talking about rice artists. Once they were fertile black soil, but were flooded and waterlogging. They belong to agricultural enterprises that cultivate various varieties of rice on them.
On the Black Sea coast there are humid subtropical soils.The soils of the Krasnodar Territory in the area from Tuapse to Adler are yellow soils, podzolite and combined lands. They occupy a relatively small area, which is limited to the waters and mountain range.
For that part of the Kuban, which is located on the Taman Peninsula and is washed by the Azov Sea, is characterized by the absence of forest tracts. These places are characterized by low groundwater levels. The earth has a dark shade, which is explained by a high concentration of humus. It is dominated by black soil. Vegetables and cereals are grown on the fertile soils of the Krasnodar Territory.
This type of soil is formed under the influence of a number of factors. The main one is a warm climate, at which the average annual temperature is 10 ° C. The amount of precipitation in these regions varies from 300 to 500 millimeters. Maximum rain falls on the foothills of the Caucasus. The highest humidity of steppe soils is noted in spring and at the very beginning of summer. During this period they are irrigated with heavy showers. Later, the soil becomes drier.
Of all the soil types of the Krasnodar Territory, this is the most valuable. It is rich in calcium.It has excellent water-air properties, has a granular structure, which in some areas may be lumpy.
Lands that occupy the area between forest and mountain ranges belong to gray and brown soils. They are formed under the influence of abundant grass cover and high humidity. These aspects are characteristic of the turf soil-forming process. The lion's share of nutrients is deposited in the surface layers. It is represented by oxides of calcium, magnesium and titanium.
In the description of the soils of the Krasnodar Territory it is said that their characteristic gray tint is formed due to the mass removal of organic matter to the surface. Under the influence of the atmosphere, it is lightened and loses its dark, almost black color. The maximum percentage of humus is noted in the upper layers. At a depth of ten centimeters, its value is 10%. In the thickness of the layer is reduced to 4%.
The percentage of humus in meadow and marsh soils of the Krasnodar Territory is much higher. This explains their rich brown color. The content of nitrogen and potassium in the forest foothills is low.
The fields on which cereals are grown today were formerly typical representatives of chernozem. These were nutrient rich soils. Artificial flooding of land, necessary to increase the yield of rice, led to their degradation. The solution to this problem today is concerned with the employees of the soil conservation service of the Krasnodar Territory.
Fresh water is used to irrigate this type of agricultural land. As a result, a stasis of gravitational moisture is formed on their surface. A sufficient amount of organic matter that is capable of active fermentation appears. Anaerobic heterotrophic microflora is formed. If these conditions are met, then the process of gley formation begins.
Degradation of land
In the course of many years of operation, rice artists receive properties characteristic of swampy soils. The fertile component is gradually fading away. As a result, on the once rich black soil there are poor, unsuitable even for the cultivation of rice soil.
On such lands it is possible to collect a poor harvest of legumes. The experience of Indian and Chinese agrarians shows that rice artists should be reanimated before the gley formation enters its active phase.
The southern part of the Krasnodar Territory is represented by red soils and yellow soils. Their concentration falls on the Black Sea coast. Basalt, trachyte, andesite, shale and sandstone are observed here. They lie at a depth of up to ten meters. The acidic environment is formed as a result of the flow of powerful biochemical processes.
The organic mass that is concentrated in the surface layers decomposes. The amount of humus in these lands is minimal. The substance is immediately washed away under the influence of frequent rain showers.