Inspection of buildings and structures: features, requirements and rules
According to GOST, inspection of buildings and structuresIt is a complex of special events, within the framework of which the actual values of indicators characterizing the performance of the structure are evaluated. According to the results of the work, the possibility of subsequent operation of the facility, reconstruction or the need to strengthen it, restore, repair is determined. In accordance withGOST, inspection of buildings and structuresincludes the study of the soil base, building elements in order to identify changes in their properties, the presence of defects, deformation damage. At the same time their actual carrying capacity is estimated. Consider the mainbuilding inspection rules.
Inspection of buildings and structurescarried out by specialized enterprises.They should have a modern instrumental and instrumental base, have experienced, highly qualified staff in their staff. Requirements for specialized enterprises performinginvestigation of buildings and structures, established by the executive authority authorized to carry out the State Construction Supervision.
Technical inspection of buildingsperformed by pre-developed programs. The first set of activities is carried out no later than 2 years from the date of commissioning. Afterwardsbuilding structure surveyperformed at least 1 p. / 10 l. and 1 p. / 5 l. for buildings operating in adverse conditions (with vibration, in aggressive environments, with high humidity, terrain seismicity of 7 points, etc.). For unique objects, permanent monitoring is established.Building Inspectionalso produced:
- At the end of the regulatory operating periods.
- If significant defects, deformations, damages during maintenance by the owner are detected.
- After fires, accidents, natural disasters that caused the destruction of buildings.
- At the initiative of the owner of the object.
- In case of changes in the technological purpose of the building.
- According to the instructions of the state structures authorized to carry out state construction supervision.
According to the results of the activities carried outI am building inspection report. This conclusion should contain enough information to make a motivated decision on the implementation of the objectives of the procedure. In relation to the means of testing, measurement methods used in the performance of the survey, are planned in advance and work on metrological support is carried out in a timely manner, in accordance with current legislation and other regulations on technical regulation. In the implementation of activities at the facilities comply with the requirements of TB. Currently, there are a lot of enterprises on the market that carry out building inspections. The price of their services is different. The cost depends on the type, area, height of the building and averages from 15 to 500 thousand rubles.
In the event that damage is detected during operation of elements that may cause a sharp decrease in the carrying capacity,the collapse of individual structures or a serious disruption of the normal functioning of the equipment, banks that can lead to the loss of stability of the structure, the specialists carrying out the survey immediately inform the owner about this. In addition, a notice of defects is sent to the operating company, local authorities and authorities authorized to conduct state building control. Information is provided in writing. The inspection certificate of the building is signed by the direct performers of the activities, heads of departments. The conclusion is approved by the heads of the organizations performing the work.
Building Inspectionit is aimed at determining the actual state of buildings and their elements, obtaining a quantitative assessment of the actual quality parameters (strength, resistance to heat transfer, etc.) taking into account temporary changes. The aim of the work is to establish the composition and scope of activities for the reconstruction or overhaul.Building Inspectionincludes the study of the state:
- Ground bases, foundations, grillages, beams.
- Walls, pillars, columns.
- Coatings and floors.
- Bay windows, balconies, stairs, trusses, crane girders.
- Link nodes, stiffeners, joints, ways to connect parts, the size of the support sites.
The constructive parts of the objects contain together functioning elements made of different materials. This is especially true for buildings built during the Soviet era. Assessment of the categories of the state of the bearing parts, including the ground, is carried out on the basis of the results of the verification calculations and surveys carried out depending on the type of building. Structures on the received indicators are divided into being:
- Restricted workable.
For objects, soil foundations that are in a regulatory and operational condition, under actual impacts and loads, operation is allowed without restrictions. At the same time for the latter may require the need for more frequent surveys. For buildings and grounds that are in a state of limited working capacity, control, measures to strengthen or restore elements are performed.If necessary, follow-up monitoring is performed. It is not allowed to operate buildings and foundations that are in emergency condition.
Building Inspectioncarried out in stages. In the first stage, the preparation of objects. The second stage involves a preliminary (visual) study. At the third stage, instrumental (detailed) examination is performed. In the event of a reduction in the scope of work by the customer, which reduces the reliability of the conclusion, he is responsible for the result of the measures.
It is carried out to get acquainted with the object, its constructive and space-planning decision, survey materials. As part of the preparatory stage, the collection and analysis of design and technical documents is carried out, a work program is drawn up taking into account the customer’s technical assignment. The result of the activities is to obtain:
- The agreed task.
- Inventory floor plans and data sheets on the object.
- Acts of inspections performed by the operator, statements of defects.
- Reports on previous studies.
- Project documentation for the object.
- Information about alterations, overhaul, reconstruction.
- Materials engineering surveys conducted over the past 5 years.
- Information about the locations near the object covered by ravines, landslide zones, karst falls, other dangerous phenomena.
- A protocol on access to the building, engineering equipment, etc., agreed with the customer
- Documentation of the competent authorities of the city on the power and location of water, gas, energy and sewage disposal.
On the basis of materials are established:
- Author and year of project development.
- Structural scheme of the structure.
- Information about the used constructions.
- The time of construction of the object.
- Assembly drawings of prefabricated elements, the period of their manufacture.
- Geometric parameters of the structure, elements and parts.
- Calculation scheme.
- Design load.
- Characteristics of materials used in the construction (stone, metal, concrete, etc.), certificates and passports for them.
- Deviations from the project and replacement.
- Parameters of the soil base.
- Type of external influences on the structure.
- Environmental information.
- Damage and defects that appeared during operation.
- The obsolescence of the building, associated with the deficiencies of the layout, the inconsistency of elements with modern requirements.
- The list of elements and parts, engineering equipment, communications, electrical networks to be surveyed.
- Methods and locations for testing and instrumental measurements.
- The sites of opening and sampling materials for study in the laboratory.
- The need to perform engineering and geological surveys.
- List of necessary calculations for verification.
The program may include other items.
It is carried out for a preliminary assessment of the state of building elements and engineering equipment, communication facilities and power grids according to external signs. In the course of the inspection, the necessity of carrying out instrumental examinations, as well as program refinements, is determined. As a result of activities receive:
- Statements and diagrams of damage and defects with the fixation of their sections and character.
- Photos and descriptions of shortcomings.
- The results of checking the presence of deformations of the structure and its individual elements. In particular, we are talking about warps, faults, troughs, rolls, etc.
- Location of emergency places.
- Refined design scheme of the object.
- The location of the bearing elements.
- Refined scheme of workings, sensing, opening structures.
- Drawing of nearby sites, drainage, vertical layout.
- Preliminary assessment of the state of engineering equipment, electrical networks, construction elements, means of communication. It is determined by the degree of damage and signs of defects.
Detailed study of the object
During it is carried out:
- Measurement of geometric parameters of the structure, elements, nodes, parts necessary for the implementation of the objectives of the survey.
- Engineering and geological surveys.
- Instrumental measurement of parameters of damage and defects, including dynamic.
- Determination of the actual properties of materials from which the bearing parts and their elements are made.
- Measurement of environmental parameters characteristic of the technological process in the building.
- Determination of actual loads and impacts on the part of the structure, taking into account the influence of the existing deformations in the foundation soils.
- Formation of the real design drawing of the object, its elements.
- Measurement of the calculated load bearing structures.
- Analysis of the causes of damage and defects.
- Formation verification calculation of the bearing capacity of elements.
- Drawing up a final conclusion with conclusions.
Thermal imagers for inspection of buildings and structures
A detailed study of the state of buildings uses various tools. As one of them is the imager - a device for determining heat loss. The equipment is equipped with an infrared camera. Information from it comes in a digital form on the screen. Thermal imagers for inspection of buildings and structures are equipped with matrices of uncooled and cooled type. The first devices have a lower cost and therefore are in great demand. Thermal imaging for inspection of buildings is highly sensitive. It depends on the size of the matrix. The characteristics of this element are the main criteria for choosing a device. The larger the matrix size, the greater the number of sensitive components in it, respectively, the higher the quality of the thermograms. Equipment configuration and options are considered secondary selection criteria. There are various options on the market, including budget ones.