How to make a herbarium with your own hands? Herbarium in biology. Herbarium of leaves
Probably, each of us at least once in our life had to ask ourselves how to make a herbarium.
Why do you need it? The reasons can be very diverse. For example, to save a torn flower, save the leaves for some crafts, or simply prepare for a biology lesson at school.
This article will not only tell you how to make the herbarium yourself. The reader will get acquainted immediately with several ways of drying plants at home. In addition, valuable tips and advice will be given on how to achieve remarkable results with a minimum of effort.
Herbarium of leaves. General definition of the concept
First of all, we note that the herbarium should be understood as a collection of dried plants, made in accordance with certain rules.As you know, after the required samples are dried, they are laid out on sheets of thick paper.
Recently, a herbarium in biology has been created by almost all schoolchildren and students studying this subject as part of an educational program.
But the first herbarium appeared in the XVI century in Italy. It was invented by a doctor and a botanist named Luca Guini. By the way, he is also the founder of the world-famous Pisa Botanical Garden.
Unfortunately, the herbarium created by the inventor himself has not survived, but the works made by his direct students have come down to our time. Considering the concept in a broader sense, it should be said that it is a process involving the storage of the collection and its processing.
Note that all created herbaria are registered in a special international database called The Index Herbariorum. Each set of dried plants is assigned a unique code consisting of one to six English letters.
We dry in the old manner
Experts say that it’s quite simple to make a herbarium with your own hands, but you still have to take into account some general rules.
First of all, we remember that we collect flowers not faded, but fresh. As a rule, used buds and stems with leaves. Only in case of need can the root system be dried.
The collected plants must be made flat, which means that the petals are removed from the massive flowers, after which the flowers are neatly aligned and compressed with the fingers.
Next comes the usual book, and preference should be given to the one that is heavier. We open the publication on any page and put a couple of napkins inside, placing the flowers and leaves neatly in the middle.
If the representatives of the flora are modest in size, skip a few pages and repeat the procedure. For large copies it is recommended to use separate books.
Sometimes when drying very fragile colors, you may need a cloth. What for? The fact is that in this case the herbarium (flower, leaf, root system) is more durable, and if such a need arises, it can be easily transferred to another book.
In general, experts advise doing so. Those. after several days of drying, transfer the cloth with flowers to another book.What for? To get rid of the moisture inside the plant as soon as possible.
After all these manipulations, we move the dried flowers to the so-called acid-free paper.
What is the principle of the modern approach?
Herbarium with your own hands can be done with the help of more modern methods. For this you will need:
- Chipboard (2 sheets);
- several rubber bands;
- absorbent paper;
On the chipboard we put 3 sheets of absorbent paper, place the flowers, which are covered with paper and the remaining piece of chipboard from above.
Each side is secured with rubber bands. We put all this in the microwave, turn on the device at an average temperature, setting the time in a few minutes.
We take out our plants and wait for them to cool completely. Most likely, the task will be completed perfectly, but it is still recommended to check whether the flowers are dry. If necessary, the procedure will have to be repeated.
Herbarium do-it-yourself using modern instruments
It should be noted that for the implementation of this method will have to spend some money.
First of all, we get a press for a microwave oven.Please note that it should be made of safe material, for example, from ceramics, and consist of two pieces, between which flowers and leaves should be placed.
Such a press can be bought in the store or even made independently. To do this, you need two ceramic tiles, 2 small sheets of cardboard, paper on the size of the tiles and several large rubber bands.
1. On the prepared ceramic tiles put one piece of cardboard and paper.
2. Place flowers on top and cover with remaining paper, cardboard and a second ceramic tile.
3. Tie the rubber bands and put in the microwave.
4. Turn on the device for just a minute.
5. Check the drying process and return the structure to the oven for another half minute until the flowers are completely dry.
6. We get them from the press and use to create their creative compositions.
Tips and tricks
- Plants are harvested exceptionally dry.
- It is desirable to save all parts of a flower or leaf, carefully carefully straightening them.
- Sometimes, in case of emergency, the plants are dried between sheets of paper with a warm iron.
- For fixing use the so-called fish glue.
- Stored plants in full size.
- On the sheet have one copy.
- The folder is not bandaged.
- From above, the genus of the plant is written and the title page of the herbarium is drawn up.
- On the back indicates the type of collected flowers or leaves.
What plants should be collected?
First of all, we note that for the herbarium specimens should be collected without obvious damage caused by insects, fungi or mold.
Herbaceous plants, as a rule, are taken together with the root system, but to dry trees and shrubs, it is enough to take an escape or twig. Considering that some of the collected plants can be damaged during drying and storage, it is necessary to collect them with a reserve (instead of one leaf or flower, stock up with two or three).
It so happens that during the so-called quiet hunt for representatives of the flora, the weather is not too hot, and the plants do not need very gentle. In this case, the collected collection can be stored for some time in a bag of polyethylene, and then transferred to the herbarium folder.
How to make herbarium right? This process is no less important than the collection and drying.Agree, amazingly beautiful specimens want to periodically look at yourself, or even to brag a collection to your friends or colleagues.
It is believed that the herbarium must contain the following information:
- date and place of gathering (region and district, neighborhood of the settlement, shore of the reservoir, etc.);
- habitat (for example, wet meadow, birch, lawn, roadside, swamp, etc.);
- the name of the collector himself.
Temporary labels are filled in the process of collecting plants in order not to forget where any material was obtained. In the herbarium net plants are laid with an already permanent label, made by all the rules.
How to properly attach and store herbarium?
Remember: it is impossible to firmly fasten the plant itself or its parts on a sheet of paper. Otherwise, your copy will break even with a slight bend.
Attach so that the sheet (or flower) does not hang on paper, and its parts do not hang.
Thick roots and shoots sew cotton threads dim color. The stitches should be separate, tied with a double knot on the front side of the herbarium leaf.On the other hand, each stitch must be greased with thick glue. This action will prevent thread slipping, which you shouldn’t stretch from the reverse side between stitches, since this may damage the underlying herbarium leaf.
With the help of strips of paper attached thin parts of the plant. The strips, in turn, are attached to the Whatman paper.
Fix the plant at the tip should not be. This will lead to breaking. The strip of paper is usually located near the base of the sheet (under the flower).
The label is placed in the lower right part of the sheet, although it is possible in another place. To store the mounted sheets it is possible in shirts (newsprint, from a kraft paper).
Many collectors are advised to additionally capture the herbarium. The photo, you see, is stored longer, although it has no real value.
Collecting and drying plants is an exciting experience for the whole family.
If you are not a biologist or a student of the relevant faculty, before you make a herbarium, you still have to ask yourself whether this activity will bring the expected pleasure. Experienced people in this business assure that it is certainly not one, especially if you join your little one to this fascinating pastime.When a child takes part in the collection of plants, he remembers how they look, as they are called.
Both the child and the adult will be interested to learn about the origin of such unusual names as the shepherd's purse, celandine, and coltsfoot. For example, not everyone knows that celandine received such a name because of its properties that contribute to the rapid healing of wounds and abrasions. And if you look closely at the shepherd's bag, you can see their similarity with hearts or tiny shepherd’s bags.
We already know how to make the herbarium independently and without help. However, it will not be superfluous to familiarize yourself with the rare data concerning this occupation.
For example, many people know that the method of drying plants between sheets of paper came up with Luca Guini. The invention of the term itself belongs to another person - Joseph Turnefort, traveler and botanist from France.
No description of the words will not replace the herbarium sheet. So thought Carl Linnaeus. And it was precisely to them that the technology of gathering plants was determined, which remained almost unchanged until today.
By the way, collected herbarium and great people.