How to grow mushrooms at home? Mushroom growing technology
Mushrooms are not only healthy and nutritious, but also very tasty. Therefore, since ancient times they are used to prepare various dishes. Mushrooms are made from soups, roasts, salads, pies, snacks and more. Of course, you want to indulge yourself with such goodies all year round. Then homemade mushrooms, grown on their own, come to the rescue. This option is suitable for those who do not like to go into the forest, to stock up for the winter, or simply prefer to eat fresher. Since champignons are the most common mushrooms, in the article we will look at how to grow champignons at home.
Useful properties of champignons
Excellent aroma, savory taste - this is how you can describe mushrooms in a few words. However, these mushrooms are not only excellent taste, but also useful properties.So, what is the rich champignons that is part of them?
- Protein. An important component by which cells are updated and built.
- A variety of amino acids. They have a beneficial effect on many functions of the human body, which include thought processes and memory. It turns out that if you know how to grow champignons at home, you can provide yourself with a year-round supply that makes our head work.
- Vitamins A, B, C, D.
- Phosphorus. Since champignons are rich in this element, they can easily be replaced by fish if you do not like it.
Also, as an antiseptic it is possible to use the juice of these mushrooms for the rapid healing of cuts, wounds and ulcers. These are the most basic beneficial properties that champignons possess.
Conditions for growing mushrooms
Mushroom cultivation technology involves the observance of some important conditions.
- Lack of sunshine.
- Moderate warmth. It is important to observe the temperature, the drops are extremely undesirable when growing mushrooms.
- Uniform and good ventilation.
- High humidity.
- Specific microclimate required at each stage of growth of fungi.
To meet these conditions and successfully grow mushrooms, you may need special equipment. We will return to this question later, but for now we will consider the places most suitable for growing mushrooms.
Places for growing mushrooms
As mentioned above, it is necessary to observe several conditions in order to achieve successful year-round mushroom cultivation. At home, a suitable place could be a basement, cellar, balcony or garage, while mushrooms are planted in boxes or pallets.
Champignons are very unpretentious mushrooms, so they can be grown even under the open sky in garden beds or in greenhouses. But in this case, the harvest will be collected only in the warm season.
How to grow mushrooms in the garden?
It is good to grow mushrooms in the garden, as they will be in the fresh air. But on the open ground it is more difficult to create the necessary conditions for champignons, and this should be taken into account, so it is better to cover them with a tarpaulin or to make a canopy or a greenhouse. It will be great if there is the most humid and shaded place on your site. They put compost on the bed, and then they do the same thing,as when growing champignons at home.
Stock for growing champignons
- Mushroom mushroom Of course, without it, nothing happens. Therefore, you first need to decide on where to buy mycelium mushrooms.
- Place for growing. Options already listed above. The basement is most often preferred, since it is there that the easiest to create suitable conditions.
- Shelving They can be any: iron or wood. It does not matter: the boxes with champignons will not be heavy.
- Tanks where the mushrooms will land. For this you can use, for example, boxes, pallets, baskets.
- Fans Suitable for ventilation and lowering the temperature.
- Hygrometer. It is necessary to monitor the humidity of the air in the room. The optimal rate - from 50 to 80 percent.
- Thermometer to control the temperature. It should be between 12 and 20 degrees Celsius.
- Substrate. Consider how to make it right.
Substrate for the cultivation of champignons
This is considered the most difficult stage in the cultivation of champignons. It may turn out a poor harvest if the substrate is not correct. So how is it necessary to make it up?
For the substrate will need compost for mushrooms, which include: manure and straw from rye or wheat. Horse manure will give a high yield, but you can use cow or bird droppings. It will be a plus if you add fallen, not rotten leaves and any organic waste, because the champignons are very “voracious”. Also, beet tops, shell of sunflower seeds, urea, chalk, gypsum, bone meal, bran and superphosphate are used as nutritional components. When compiling the substrate, the following proportion is observed: 75% manure and 25% compost.
How to grow champignons at home in a small area of 1.5 square meters? You can use the following compost formula.
- Straw - 50 pounds.
- Urea and superphosphate - 1 kilogram.
- Gypsum - 4 kilograms.
- Chalk - 2.5 kilograms.
- Manure - 150 pounds.
Just get a little more than 200 pounds of substrate.
Straw should be pre-soaked for a day, then lay it in layers with manure. Each layer of straw is better to moisten with urea and superphosphate. Then everything is mixed up and other nutritional components are being introduced.Now the substrate should be infused for about 20 days. You can talk about full readiness when the unpleasant smell of ammonia disappears.
It is not necessary to adhere to this formula, there are other recipes on how to grow mushrooms in the home.
When preparing the substrate, you need to be prepared for the fermentation process, which is accompanied by specific odors of ammonia and carbon dioxide, therefore it is better to do this not in a closed room, but in fresh air. Compost should be covered with a canopy to hide it from rain and sunlight.
Planting mycelium mushrooms
At home, it is better to grow sterile mycelium, obtained in laboratories. They take root more easily and multiply faster. Mushroom mushrooms can be of different varieties, one species is consumed more, the other - less. So, per 1 square meter of substrate will require 400 grams of grain mycelium, and dung - 500 grams.
When decided on the amount of consumables and bought it, you can proceed to a direct landing. First, you should measure the temperature of the substrate, the most optimal for the mycelium of mushrooms is a mark of about 25 degrees.
So, how to grow champignon mushrooms? The holes are recommended to be staggered at a distance of 20-30 centimeters from each other. Mycelium must be broken into small pieces and planted them to a depth of 5 centimeters. Grain variety can simply lay on the surface.
Care for mushroom spawn after planting
After replanting the mycelium, you must comply with the conditions described above. This is high humidity and fairly moderate heat. Moreover, these conditions must be met not only indoors, but also in the substrate. To keep it constantly wet, you can cover it with a newspaper and from time to time spray it - then the compost will not be dry.
About a week later, the mycelium will begin to grow, then the substrate should be sprinkled on top of the soil by 3-4 cm. Mushroom growing technology suggests that during this period it is necessary to slightly lower the temperature of the substrate to about 20 degrees, and indoors - to 12-17 degrees. Do not forget about good ventilation in the room, however, drafts should not be allowed. Basically, that's the whole care of the mushroom.
It’s not enough to know how to grow champignons at home, there are also nuances in harvesting.
With good care, champignons bear fruit for up to two months, during which time you can get mushrooms many times. You can start harvesting the first harvest in 30 days.
Mushrooms are not cut off like wild mushrooms, but twisted from the substrate. Then the empty hole is sprinkled with earth and moistened to create the conditions for the emergence of a new crop. Not all mushrooms collect, but only “ripe” ones - those that have a stretched white film under the cap that connects the stem and the edges of the cap, and the plate has a pale pink color. Champignons with brown plates are not recommended to be eaten. If the film has burst, then the mushroom is considered old. This should not be allowed, because it is very depleting mycelium.
Mushroom cultivation - an idea for business
Mushroom cultivation was popular as early as the 18th century in European countries and not only, most often in Italy, France, America, Germany, Sweden, England and Belgium. In Russia, the home production of these mushrooms began only in the 19th century, because our forests are already rich in edible gifts of nature.
Today, the cultivation of champignons - a business with a good profit. If you make simple mathematical calculations, then in one year you can get up to 6 harvests. Of course, you will also need equipment, electricity and heating costs.But in general, from the sale of champignons, you can get a good income, you just need to know who constantly sell the harvest.
It is not surprising that today such a niche, like the cultivation of champignons, is already occupied by entrepreneurs, because these mushrooms are abundantly fruiting, they are easy to grow, and the necessary raw materials (in fact, waste) can be purchased almost for nothing. Of course, you can try to get into this business, but you have to make a lot of effort to get a solid profit from it in the first months.
Now you know how to grow champignons at home, and what kind of inventory is required for this. You can do production on a large scale, and you can plant these mushrooms for yourself, for your soul, to feast on them all the year round. In any case, the cultivation of champignons is a simple and even interesting exercise.