How to choose a wood boiler? Wood solid fuel boilers long burning for home heating
It is hard to believe, but thanks to modern technologies special wood heating boilers have been developed that can work for a long time without human intervention. For example, there are structures in which it is necessary to throw firewood every 3-4 hours, and there are also those that can be refilled every 12 hours.
Scope of use
As a rule, wood-burning boiler is an excellent solution for residents of those areas in which there is no possibility to connect to the gas pipeline network. It can also be used as an alternative by those who do not have the financial ability to crash into a gas pipeline. Often, a wood-fired boiler for a house becomes an additional source of heating at the time while documents are being drawn up for a tie-in in the network of a regional organization engaged in the supply of gas to individuals and legal entities.
With the help of such a heater it is possible to provide heating for several rooms. It is necessary to choose a boiler, focusing on its power, weight, efficiency and the material from which it is made.
If you are thinking whether it is worth buying a wood-fired boiler, reviews of people who have already made such an acquisition will make it possible to decide. So, speaking of the merits of this device, many mention:
- durability and economy;
- ease of use and care;
- the possibility of using it as an additional source of energy.
In addition, experts note that any of the boilers is unpretentious to the quality of the energy carrier used in it. Also, you will not need to remodel the house in order to install the boiler. You can arrange it in any place convenient for you. If, for example, for a gas boiler it is necessary to equip a special room with a flat low floor, then the wood-burning option can be put anywhere. The main thing is not to place it near flammable objects. It is also desirable that the room was a chimney.
The advantages of this device include environmental friendliness.During operation, each wood-burning boiler burns many heavy toxic compounds, including soot. Because of this, they do not go into the chimney, polluting the surrounding air, but simply burn and generate heat. Only non-flammable gases that are non-toxic enter the air.
If you decide to buy a wood boiler, then you need to know what to look for when choosing it. So, first of all it is necessary to learn about the level of efficiency for the heating system of the house from the boiler. It is also advisable to pay attention to the material from which it is made. For example, the most popular models of cast iron or steel. From the material will depend not only the weight of this product, but also its power, as well as service life.
Pig-iron product is able to provide long-term stable operation, because it cools for a long time. In addition, this material is durable. Cast iron boilers can last more than 20 years. But they have one major drawback. With frequent temperature changes such a boiler begins to collapse.
Steel, unlike cast iron, is more resilient. But its service life is a little less.Approximately 15 years later, corrosion processes have begun to be noticed in the steel product.
Features of use
If you decide to install a wood-burning boiler in your house, then you will be interested to know how a long-term burning of firewood is ensured. It is also important to deal with all the nuances of its operation. So, first of all you need to know that the combustion process is regulated in the boiler by changing the level of air supply. Carbon monoxide released during combustion does not go to the chimney, but is the basis for the emergence of combustible gas. This ensures the ecological purity of the specified design.
If you decide that the heating of a private house with a wood boiler is the best possible option, then you need to familiarize yourself in advance with all the problems you may encounter during its operation.
So, the disadvantages include the following features:
- when burning wood, soot and ash are formed in large quantities;
- the boiler must be located in a room equipped with a chimney;
- the heat carrier coming from the wood boiler is heated unevenly.
In addition, a place should be allocated in which the necessary supply of firewood will be stored. It should be closed and well ventilated. After all, it is important to ensure that the logs remain dry.
Principle of operation
In order to use the boiler, it is necessary to put fuel in a special place. It can be either firewood or peat or coal. The main feature of modern solid fuel boilers is that they have limited oxygen supply. This contributes to the fact that the process of corruption slows down. This means that the need for fuel is significantly reduced. It was estimated that modern options consume 80% less energy than conventional solid fuel boilers. Also, due to this feature, the time required to control the operation of the device is significantly reduced.
Heating is due to the fact that during slow smoldering in a closed space a large amount of gas is formed, which has a high calorific value. It passes into a specially created combustion chamber through a refractory nozzle. There, from the inflation of oxygen, the gas ignites.
The fuel in such boilers begins to burn from the top layer.The flame descends gradually from top to bottom. This helps to slow down the combustion process, but at the same time increases the heat transfer.
Characteristics of various models
Before buying a particular option, it is important to understand what is a wood-burning boiler. Reviews will help you choose a specific model and deal with the features of its operation.
Different models have different duration of work from one load. So, it can be like a few hours, and can last up to 1-2 days.
Like gas appliances, wood-burning boilers are divided into single and dual circuit. The second option allows not only to heat the house, but provides hot water. Of course, each of the models has its own characteristics, but experts have calculated the average indicators to demonstrate the advantages of these devices.
So, the usual wood boiler with a water circuit works with a power of 100 kW, using for this purpose coal, peat or wood. At the exit of the device, the water should be about 800C, at the entrance - 500C. On average, boilers on one load work for about 12 hours.
All of them are well protected from overheating due to an enhanced safety system.However, before buying it is worth considering that the mass of the boiler can reach 400 kg.