History of the origin of money
The history of the emergence of money has startedlong. In the primitive period, there was a simple exchange of goods. After all, not everyone could make axes and weapons and at the same time be a good hunter. And then there was an idea. People decided that the blacksmith needed to make weapons. With him, the hunter goes on a hunt, and part of the booty will give as a payment for the ax and the arrowhead. Thus, a mutually beneficial barter exchange arose. As a result, a division of labor has emerged. Some artisans specialized in the production of certain things.
However, an exchange occursthe need for the need of one trader in the product that the other offers. As a result, barter was possible only if both sellers needed items from each of them. The existence of such a condition limited the probability of exchange of goods. On the other hand, equivalent things should participate in the barter. This condition was also an obstacle to exchange.
The need to carry out barter operations has led mankind to allocate a certain equivalent from a large number of goods. It was he who began to be used in the exchange.
The history of the appearance of money at this stagecharacterized by the emergence of goods that have sufficient liquidity (the ability to be realized). They are certain items, as well as animals. For example, the ancient Ethiopians used to calculate bars of salt. Residents of the island of Nauru used rats as the equivalent for the exchange of goods, while the Aztecs served as cocoa beans in the form of the first monetary units. American colonists made the exchange of the goods they needed on the skins of valuable animals or tobacco leaves. Cow shells were widely spread. The first money they began to serve in China, and then they used the people of Thailand, India and Africa.
The history of the appearance of money at the next stage required the fulfillment of certain requirements:
- they should not have lost their presentation in storage and transfer;
- to carry them with you should have been easy;
- A small amount of money had to be enough for necessary purchases;
- the total value should not decrease with fine crushing.
The history of the appearance of money on the followingthe historical stage was marked by the appearance of metal coins. They were first released in the seventh century BC in Lydia. The first coins looked like beans in appearance and were called stators or standards. A hundred years later, metal money began to be cast in Greece, in southern Italy, as well as in countries of Asia Minor.
The history of the emergence of money in Russia began withKievan Rus. It was there in the ninth to tenth centuries that the coinage took its roots. The most appreciated metal money from gold. Following them - silver, and then copper. Some Russian principalities minted their money. However, the silver "tenga", brought in by the Tatars, was enough spread. From it and received the name of Russian money. The ingot of silver for the production of fractional parts was cut into different pieces. Hence the word "ruble" appeared.
The third stage in the history of the development of monetaryrelationship is the period that began in the nine hundred and sixtieth year. It was then that China opened a paper analogue of coins. The reason for the appearance of banknotes was the lack of metal. At the initial stage, paper for the production of money was made on the basis of the bark of mulberry trees.
In the eighteenth century, banknotes spread widely in European countries, and at the end of the nineteenth century their position in the world became dominant.
The history of the emergence of money, an abstract on whichYou can always find it on the Internet, it is currently at its fourth stage. It consists in the gradual transition to electronic payments, through which the non-cash form of payment is carried out. Thus, money in the form of banknotes and coins is gradually being squeezed out of the economic turnover.