Heat stroke: symptoms and treatment. First aid. Prevention
People are looking forward to summer vacation, when you can swim in the warm sea, wander along the embankment in the evening, feel the unique taste of the breeze. For some, this is a pleasant vacation, and for others it is unbearable heat, which is impossible to hide from. In this regard, the summer time is just the time of year when a person can easily get a heat stroke. Symptoms and treatment of the disease, prevention and first aid to the victim - this is an incomplete list of those issues that are discussed in this article.
Concepts about ailment
What is dangerous heat stroke? Symptoms and treatment of the disease are associated with excessive overheating, when the air temperature is too high, and the human body is not able to provide normal heat control. Heat stroke come in two forms:
- Overheating of the body occurs when active physical loads are placed on it.The disease is observed more often in people whose daily life is associated with sports, when regularly and for a long time you have to perform exhausting monotonous exercises. This form of the disease is also observed in people whose professional activity is associated with heavy physical labor in a room where it is always hot and stuffy, and there is no ventilation.
- Another form is classic. It is due to the fact that the temperature during thermal shock in the room or on the street is very high. Most often, this form of the disease affects children or the elderly.
If the victim does not receive first aid, it can really threaten his health. The fact is that a person adapts to any conditions of his environment. When the air temperature rises, the body more actively releases heat. The process of thermoregulation is associated with sweat glands and skin. If their condition is good, perspiration is effective and the body does not overheat. For information: per hour can stand out a liter of sweat.
A classic heat stroke in an adult or a child occurs when his body is not able to adapt to high temperature mobile.Many persistent diseases of the skin and cardiovascular system prevent normal perspiration. Also, this form of the disease is observed in infants, preschool children and the elderly.
Who is more prone to heat stroke?
- Sailors who find themselves in a tropical climate to which they are not adapted.
- Workers whose place of professional activity are hot shops.
- People agricultural occupations associated with a permanent stay on the street.
- Servicemen marching in hot weather.
- Tourists without adequate physical training and improper organization of the hike.
- People with chronic diseases of the heart and blood vessels, the endocrine system and metabolic processes suffering from obesity. Mortality in this category of victims is very high.
Factors affecting the onset of heat stroke symptoms
Degree of heat stroke
In order, if necessary, not to wonder what to do with a heatstroke, you need to know his degree for first aid to the victim. The first degree of the disease is observed when there is a forty-degree heat in the street.But man has a stable adaptability to thermoregulation. Its heat transfer is commensurate with the heat load on the body. Heat is removed from the body through the respiratory tract and skin. Human well-being is satisfactory, although there may be complaints of drowsiness, lethargy, unwillingness to make any movements.
When the air temperature is fifty degrees above zero, a person may well get a heat stroke. Symptoms and treatment of the disease are associated with heat load, as a result of which heat accumulates in the body and the evaporation of moisture is not compensated. The person who received it, there is a partial adaptation to thermoregulation. Body temperature rises to thirty-eight degrees. Pulmonary ventilation is enhanced, the pulse increases. This is the second degree of the disease.
The third degree of heat stroke can be obtained at an ambient temperature of sixty degrees or more, if a person's fitness for thermoregulation is compromised. In this case, the body temperature rises to forty degrees, the pulse increases sharply (up to 160 beats per minute), the skin becomes red and is covered with drops of sweat.The victim has a headache, crushes his temples, his heartbeat quickens, he is tormented by thirst. It may be difficult to move.
At the last degree, the fourth, a person completely lacks the body's adaptability to thermoregulation. The patient's condition is characterized by a sharp disruption of the cardiovascular, nervous and other systems. The disease may be accompanied by acidosis and renal failure. There is a high probability of pulmonary edema and cerebral hemorrhage in a person who has received a heat stroke.
Symptoms and treatment
- A person experiences a feeling of stuffiness and weakness.
- There is severe thirst, which is accompanied by headache and constriction of the heart.
- There is aching pain in the back and limbs.
- Body temperature rises to 40aboutC and above.
- The skin becomes pale, dry and hot.
- Significantly reduced or completely stopped sweating.
- The mucous membranes of the eyes and lips turn blue.
- Dyspnea appears.
- Significantly increased heart rate.
- Blood pressure gets low.
- Urination is weak.
- There is confusion or a person loses it.
- There are convulsions, and sometimes paralysis.
- If you do not take this disease seriously, there comes a coma, and then death.
Not necessarily all signs of heat stroke are observed in one person. After all, their appearance depends on many factors: age, general health, the presence of chronic diseases, temperature and humidity of the environment, the degree of ventilation of the room. But the presence of two or more symptoms of this disease should be alarming. It is better to seek medical help.
With a strong arousal, Dimedrol or Aminazin is administered to the victim, and Sibazon, Seduxen, Phenobarbital, with convulsion. When cardiac activity decreases - Cordiamin, Caffeine, Strofantin. Oxygen, which breathes the patient, it is recommended to mix with carbon dioxide.
How to help the victim?
Well, if first aid for heat stroke will be provided immediately. Then you can avoid serious health troubles. Indeed, many people suffer from chronic diseases. This will greatly aggravate their situation. What to do with heat stroke?
- First, call the ambulance brigade.While waiting for the arrival of the doctor to cool down the body of the victim. To do this, it should be attributed to the shadow.
- With a feeling of weakness and nausea, the patient should take a supine position, that is, horizontal. If vomiting opens, turn it over on its side so that it does not choke.
- In the area of the neck and forehead put compresses from the cold. You can use ice or cold water.
- It should immediately provide a powerful influx of fresh, cool air.
- If possible, you need to pour cool water on the victim’s body or help him take a bath.
- With an obscure consciousness bring to the nose ammonia.
First aid for heat stroke can save a person’s life. That is why it is so important to be able to render it. Remember this!
If the doctor finds signs of heat stroke, first of all, you need to reduce the temperature. To do this, the victim is carefully transferred to the shade, free from body-embarrassing clothing.
Next, put a cold on the head and left side of the chest, in the area of the heart. After that, a sufficient amount of fluid is injected into the body. With a clear mind he is given to drink a lot of cold water or tea.
The effects of heat stroke and its danger
A person is not always able to notice the onset of the disease, and treats malaise, headache and some other symptoms to his old sores. And at this time the brain gives commands to the body: not to succumb to weakness and not to react to the failure of the body temperature regime. A person will go into the shadows, but very often it is late.
People get a heat stroke even when they are at home. Enough to take a hot bath or work out for a long time on simulators in an unventilated room. The consequences of heat stroke are different: it is enough for one person to lie down for a few hours - and everything will pass, but for another it may end in cardiac arrest.
- Wear clothing made of cotton fabrics in a heat, loose fit and light colors. In hot and humid weather, you should limit the activity of sports and physical education. It is better to do this at another time when it is cooler: in the evening or in the morning.
- Do not forget to drink plenty of fluids before and after training.
- Limit the use of water with gas and caffeine. They contribute to the removal of fluid.
- Do not drink beverages with an alcohol content (they also remove fluid from the body) before and after exercise.
- If you are taking any drugs, be sure to consult with your doctor. Perhaps they affect the body's ability to control body temperature.