Foam blocks with their own hands at home
Today, many are engaged in construction work on their own, the benefit of the modern market can offer a large amount of materials, and on the web there is a manual on the work for every taste.
Today one of the latest developments is foam concrete. It is becoming widely popular, so an increasing number of home builders want to make foam blocks with their own hands.
The advantages of foam concrete
Foam concrete is a type of concrete with a cellular porous structure. As advantages over other building materials, the following can be noted:
- High thermal insulation properties. Due to the fact that the cells of the material are filled with air, foam concrete retains heat inside during the cold season and does not let it pass outside in hot weather. In winter, these properties save heating costs by 25%.
- Flowability This property allows you to pour material in various forms for the manufacture of various blanks.
- Reliability.The material is not influenced by atmospheric factors, as well as chemical influences.
- Ease. Foam concrete is three times lighter than concrete and two and a half times lighter than brick. Thanks to these characteristics, reduced loads on the foundation and floors are provided.
- Strength properties. Having a density of 400-1400 kg / cm³, foam concrete can withstand a compressive load of 10-100 kg / cm³.
- Microclimate maintenance. Foam concrete is distinguished by good air permeability, therefore it allows maintaining optimum values of temperature and humidity in the room, allowing walls to breathe.
- Environmental friendliness. Consists of natural raw materials, does not emit harmful components.
- Sound insulation properties. The material perfectly absorbs sound.
- Fireproof. By standards it has the first degree of fire resistance. A wall of 15 cm thick foam will be able to protect against fire for four hours.
- Ease and speed of installation. These qualities are provided by large block sizes and ease of processing. The usual manual tool will allow to cut the necessary form.
Foam blocks their own hands: equipment and materials
For the manufacture of foam will require the following equipment:
- Barostanovka. This type of equipment is a simple production complex without using the foam generator. For mixing components, a built-in activator is used. Since mixing is performed under pressure, when the solution is discharged, air bubbles expand even more, making the mixture easier and cellular. This installation allows you to make foam with a density of from 500 to 1200 kg / m3and simultaneously transport it to the construction site.
- Vibrating screen The equipment is designed for sorting and sifting ingredients, which allows to obtain a homogeneous composition of the material for the production of higher quality products.
- Compressor. It is used when using barostanovki.
- Concrete mixer. It is intended for mixing the solution in the manufacture without the use of barostavki.
- Form to make foam blocks with their own hands. Photos of this design are given above.
- Frother. Used when using the foam generator. This material has high foam stability in the cement mix,which makes it possible to transport already finished foam concrete mass over long distances, without subjecting the structure to destruction.
It is not very difficult to make foam blocks with your own hands at home; this process is divided into several stages:
- prepared cement-sand mortar;
- preparing a mixture of foaming agent;
- the formation of a solution of foam concrete;
- manufacturing foam blocks.
Regardless of whether the material is produced industrially or foam blocks are made by hand, the proportions of raw materials depend on the density of the foam concrete to be obtained. Manufacturing technology allows to vary this figure from two hundred to one and a half thousand kilograms per cubic meter. In order to obtain the average density of foam concrete, you need to observe the following relationship:
- sand - 1 part;
- cement - 1-1.5 parts;
- concentrate frother - 4 g per kilo of cement.
Making cement mortar
To make foam blocks with your own hands at home, the cement mortar is prepared in the same way as for ordinary concrete:
- Cement brand M400 or M500 without impurities and additives.Grinding cement should have such a fraction, in which more than 85% of the material passes through a sieve with cell 008.
- Sand is taken not more than two units of fraction size and necessarily without clay impurities that interfere with its adhesion with cement, perfect quartz sand with a quartz content of more than 85%. Also, this material must be resistant to the chemical action of cement alkali. In the sand of poor quality quality foam just will not work.
- Water should not contain acid and salt impurities (suitable for tap water).
After the necessary ingredients are measured, they are well mixed until a solution of uniform structure and density is obtained.
Preparation of the foaming solution
In order to make foam blocks with your own hands, you can use ready-made, commercially available synthetic frothers (for example, Arekom-4), or you can make this material yourself (suitable for use in technology with a foam generator). This will require:
- caustic soda in the amount of 150 g;
- Rosin - 1 kg;
- wood glue - 60 g
These ingredients must be crushed, then the mixture must be heated and mixed until a homogeneous composition. This solution is added to the previously obtained concrete.
When using a concentrate of a foaming agent, it is mixed with water to obtain a working solution. Depending on the density of the foam concrete to be obtained, the foaming agent will be consumed in the range of 0.25-1.2 l of concentrate per cubic meter of foam concrete mixture.
Production of foam concrete
To decide how to make a foam block with your own hands, you need to know that foam concrete can be manufactured using two technologies: with and without a foam generator.
In the first case, the cement-sand mortar is prepared and mixed in a special container, which is equipped with a forced-pressure bar mixer. After the solution is ready, the working mixture of the foaming agent prepared in the foam generator is added to it. All components are thoroughly mixed and it turns out ready-to-pour foam concrete. This scheme is considered a classic.
The second type involves the use of a cavitation installation that does not require the use of a foam generator. In this case, all components are loaded immediately into the mixing tank and mixed. Due to the overpressure in the mixer, a further supply of the foam concrete solution is made from the installation.
In order to speed up the process of curing foam concrete, special accelerators are added to the cement-sand mortar. Such a component can serve as calcium chloride, which is made in the calculation of 1.5% by weight of cement.
Getting foam blocks in finished forms
When the concrete is ready, it is poured into cooked forms. Before pouring, their internal surfaces are lubricated with special oil-free formulations. In the forms, you can get both blocks of a given size, and large elements, which are then sawn on band saw machines.
Ready metal forms with standard sizes of obtained foam blocks - 60x30x20 cm are available. You can also mount them yourself.
The advantages of the finished forms of metal include the following:
- Fast removal of finished items due to simple disassembly.
- Self-made foam blocks are obtained with exact geometric shapes.
- Because of the collapsible design of the form, compacts are transported without any problems.
- Durable, due to the material from which they are made.
Folding cassette forms allow you to fill at the same time thirty blocks.One construction is 1.08 m³ of foam concrete.
Independent construction of foam blocks
The advantage of their self-made in order to make foam blocks with their own hands, is that in this case the builder is not limited to standard sizes. Recommend to mount the form with the number of cells 40 pieces.
The material for the design of forms can serve as plywood, boards, metal sheets or strips. The main thing is to be able to build a mesh box of the required sizes.
When making a form, you must follow a few rules:
- The construction should be single-level, since the foam concrete on the lower layers hardens worse.
- The length of the box to be made should be a multiple of the width of the blocks, and the height should be their height (or vice versa).
The manufacture of the form begins with the formation of the bottom, the dimensions of which are established by calculation depending on the parameters of the blocks, it is also necessary to take into account the thickness of the partitions.
Then the partitions are attached to the bottom and are connected to each other by means of fasteners corresponding to the material of the form. Spacers and corners here will not work. If the form is made of plywood or wood,then after the completion of the work, the cells are covered with plastic wrap in order to avoid the absorption of foam concrete and facilitate the process of excavation of finished elements.
It is necessary to dry the blocks within 48 hours at a temperature of +50 ° C.