Earthing in the dacha with their own hands: circuit, photo
Many people prefer to spend summer in the countryhouse. This is an excellent option for a little rest from the city's bustle, grow your own vegetables and fruits. But the point in this article is not about gardening, but about security. If in the process of building high-rise buildings the developer necessarily provides for grounding, then the private sector should take care of itself. Let's talk about how to make a grounding in the dacha with your own hands. Scheme and the process of connection - that's what will be emphasized.
What is grounding and why is it necessary?
Electric current can be compared with water only byone property. Both liquid and electricity flow along the path of least resistance. Today, we are almost completely dependent on the availability of electricity. It holds almost all household appliances, from the TV set to the heating equipment.
Each of these devices has fuses andIsolation, which is designed to protect the consumer from electric shock. Imagine what could happen if a layer of insulation material is broken. Correct, may cause an electric shock. Well, if an automatic device is installed, which in time will de-energize the equipment. If it does not exist, the consequences can be the saddest. To nothing like this happens, they establish a grounding on the dacha with their own hands, the scheme of which can be different, but the essence is one.
What is it, the ideal grounding?
This question can be answered unequivocally: the one that has the least resistance. We have already figured out that the current will go to where there is less resistance. In our case, it is necessary to achieve the lowest possible value. Note that the human body also has its own resistance. It varies depending on climatic conditions and human condition. For example, the resistance of a person in an intoxicated state is negligible, which is why a drinker is always harder to survive after a severe electric shock.
In our case, we will adhere to the value of 4 ohms. In this case, the grounding resistance should be slightly less than this figure. In any case, it is desirable to learn such information in the PUE. Well, now let's move directly to the topic.
What is the significance of the soil?
Many can say that there is no difference, where and onwhat depth to instill grounding, and will be absolutely not right. The type of soil, the depth of water and other factors are of prime importance. But in any case there is a general rule. It consists in the fact that the more the earth is saturated with water, the lower the depth it is necessary to clog the electrodes. You also need to reduce their pitch.
And now about the type of soil. It also has its significance in terms of resistance. For example, peat - 20 Ohm * m, black earth and clay - 25-30 Ohm * m, sandy loam - 150 Ohm * m. It is worth mentioning also sand, whose resistance reaches from 500 to 1000 Ohm * m. This parameter increases depending on the depth of groundwater. As you can see, the grounding in the dacha with your own hands, the scheme of which will be considered a little lower, is not properly done right.
All about electrodes
The first thing you need to determine is the depththe occurrence of electrodes. It is recommended not to bury them deeper than 3 meters, but less than 1.5 meters from the surface, too, can not be. Here much depends on the depth at which water lies. If it is 2.5 meters, then it will be enough to drive the electrodes to a depth of no more than 2 meters.
Earthing scheme in the country (with their own hands)mounted) implies a certain step (distance) between the electrodes. Usually it makes sense to stick to the distance of 1.2-3 meters. As for the number of electrodes in the circuit, there must be at least three of them. The layout is in a row or a triangle. The distance from the contour to the foundation of the building is at least 3 meters. In any case, it is advisable to contact the electricians for assistance. Let the installation work you do yourself, but learn about the type of soil and the depth of the waters of the professionals still will not hurt. In addition, it is possible to draw a grounding diagram on the dacha with their own hands, the benefit of the present options for the sample is abound. Well, now we go further.
We make grounding at the dacha with our own hands: a diagram, a photo
In this section we will talk about thegrounding circuits. The most common scheme is a triangle with electrodes at the tops. It should be understood that the entire contour must be at the same depth (below freezing of the ground).
A separate matter is the connection of the contour. In themselves, the electrodes dug in the ground do not carry any load. Before the grounding is fully ready, they must be connected together. For this purpose, a metal strip is suitable, in the extreme case, an armature.
With regard to the type of connection, in priority it isthere must be welding, moreover, it is necessary to use this method of connecting the electrodes to each other. From one electrode to the power cabinet (electric shield) is a steel strip. As the electrodes, you can use a steel corner section 4 x 4 mm, reinforcement 12 x 12 mm, steel pipe with a wall thickness of at least 3.5 mm or steel strip 12 x 4 mm. In general, this, as well as shovels and crowbar should be enough to arrange a full grounding.
On the material and cross section of electrodes
You can safely say that to push offit is necessary from the section of the material. But you need to understand that an important role is played by whether you can score the selected electrode in the ground. For example, you can give preference to a grounded steel rod and it does not matter if it's a profile pipe or an I-beam. If you took a corner, then you can cut it with the help of a Bulgarian. This results in a sharp wedge, which is very convenient to drive into the ground. But as regards the reinforcement, then there is inadmissible rippling due to the reduction of soil resistance.
If you have the opportunity to purchase readyset for grounding, then do so. It is a set of copper-plated electrodes with a length of one meter. The construction is connected by means of threaded connections. This is very convenient, and the installation is carried out as quickly as possible, though, the price of such a set is rather large. By the way, it does not matter at all whether the grounding is done by hand for a gas boiler or a microwave oven, as the steel strip is connected to the power cabinet. Therefore, all equipment will be grounded.
How to make a grounding for your own hands: step by step instruction
Now is the time to start earthmoving. We have already decided on the material of the electrodes and the depth of their occurrence. Now you need to choose the right place. In priority, you need to dig a trench no further than 10 meters from the shield. The first thing we do is dig a trench half a meter wide and a meter deep in the shape of an equilateral triangle. From it we make a trench to the power cabinet. If the density and type of soil allow, then drive the electrodes at the vertices of the triangle. Otherwise, you will have to drill small wells.
It is noteworthy that if we drilled wellsThe groove can be covered with soil, mixing it with salt. This will significantly reduce the resistance, but the corrosion process will proceed more actively. After installation, the electrodes should rise slightly above the ground so that they can be welded. Pay attention to the fact that it is unacceptable to ground the dacha by hand without welding. After the welding work is completed and we get a closed triangle, we lead the strip to the power cabinet. There we fasten it with a bolt of 10 mm and weld it to the strip.
After you have completed all of the abovecheck the loop resistance. For this we need an ohmmeter. In this case it is desirable to involve a specialist from the energy management. He will make the necessary measurements, if the grounding at the dacha, the scheme of which was given somewhat higher, was carried out correctly, will make the necessary documentation.
If we have achieved a resistance of less than 4 ohms, thenexcellent, if not - expand our circuit with additional electrodes. If everything is in order, then fall asleep trenches. In this case, it is not allowed to use building debris and any other waste. You need to fill up with a uniform soil.
It is important
Pay attention to the fact that many specialistsrecommend flooding the circuit with water, thereby reducing its resistance. Often this is done before the arrival of an employee from the energy management, so as not to cause problems with the documentation. But we did not try to print it on paper, but for our own safety, do not forget about it.
If you live on a rocky terrain, thenthe vertical arrangement of the electrodes does not suit you. In this case, it is advisable to use horizontal or ray types of electrodes. A step of 3 to 10 meters is required, and the electrodes must be located in the form of divergent rays or a grid.
Another great way out is to ground at the dacha atpile foundation. In this case, you do not need to dig a trench and clog the electrodes. It is enough to make a competent contour of piles. But we need to understand that in this case the probability of electrochemical corrosion increases. Consequently, the piles will serve an order of magnitude less than they could. But in terms of reliability, this is an excellent solution from either side.
In general, we figured out how to use our own handsmake a grounding. Particularly complicated there is nothing, the most important thing is to be attentive at all stages, take into account the depth of freezing of ground, the level of groundwater and other important parameters. In any case, if you do everything right, then you will be satisfied. The risk of electric shock from household appliances will be minimized.