Categories of dialectics and their features
Laws and categories of dialectics - what do they have in common?
Those who study philosophy, at least in very general terms, cannot do without such a thing as “dialectics”. However, mainly attention is paid to its universal laws. We will talk about categories of dialectics and how they relate to other elements of this philosophical theory. First of all, this is, of course, not about legal laws, but about certain interrelations between concepts, things and processes. That is, that characterizes the interdependence of the elements and phenomena of a particular system. If the law is a relationship between entities, then a category is a basic concept in dialectics. It, as a rule, expresses these entities themselves and the nature of the relations between them. For example, the connection, the property, the opposite, the difference, the jump - all these are categories of dialectics. Laws cannot be formulated without them.
What do they reflect and what are they?
Usually in the categories of dialectics express the most essential terms - signs, connections, properties, relations between things and processes - having the most important character.They are very important for a person, but he becomes aware of them at a rather high level of development. After all, people express their opinions in different ways - including sounds and images. But language is the most common means by which we understand each other. The more developed a language is, the easier it is for it to reach the categorical level - that is, the state of the highest degree of generalization. So what are the categories of dialectics? These are the highest, most generalized and universal forms that philosophical thinking can provide us. They appear as a result of a special epistemological process - abstraction. It consists in the fact that we are distracted from some properties of things, but focus on others.When we need to find common ground in several subjects, we discard what they differ in and choose what they are similar to. The categories of dialectics are the search and fixation of the most common and important in objects and processes. For example, "material" or "ideal." In addition, if any science has its own conceptual apparatus, applicable only in any one area, then these concepts are so generalized that they can be used in different specialties.
Main categories of dialectics
Of course, these terms have appeared and changed over the course of human history and the development of the theory of knowledge. These are the main ontological concepts, such as "being", "movement", "time", "matter", "spirit". They also include categories that characterize the laws of development - “leap”, “contradiction”, “negation”, “quality”, “formation”, “quantity”. In addition, they describe certain common properties of things and processes, as well as their structures - “cause and effect”, “common, individual and particular”, “system and element”, “reality and possibility”, “contingency and necessity” and so Further. In a word, we are dealing with certain logical forms that are universal in nature and have developed in the process of human thinking and the accumulation of certain experience. They are also divided into correlative and substantial. The first ones are interconnected and do not exist without each other. For example, “content” and “form”. Aristotle also noticed that one implies the other. Substantial categories fix the essential properties of things, but they do not tell us anything about the connections between them.