Australia: the nature of the mainland, its features. Animals and Plants of Australia
The smallest continent on the planet is Australia - one of the richest and most highly developed countries in the world. It is the only continent on which there is only one state possessing vast natural resources, which enabled it to occupy a leading place in the world in a number of different areas of economic activity (tourism, mining and gold, meat, grain and wool).
Geographical position and nature of Australia
Located at the junction of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Australia, in addition to the mainland, includes the island of Tasmania, located on the southern side of the continent, and many small islands. The relief of the continent was formed due to the Central lowland, in which are located the depressions located below the level of the World Ocean.
In the western part, the mainland platform is elevated and on it is the West Australian Plateau. The eastern part of the continent is distinguished by the Great Dividing Range, which stretches along the entire coast. Its eastern slopes abruptly fall off, the western - more gentle, with a gradual decrease, they turn into hilly foothills, called Downsans.
Description of the mainland
Australia, whose nature is extraordinarily beautiful, is characterized by a mild climate and the same legislation. The vast expanses of the country (an area of 1,682,300 sq. Km), the ancient culture of the local people, harmoniously combined with the culture of the new world — this is what makes Australia unusual and creates an individual and unique character for it. The population of the state is 19 million people, of which 94% are descendants of European immigrants, 4% are Asian and 2.0% are Aboriginal. According to religious beliefs in Australia, 75% are Christians, the rest are Buddhists, Muslims and Jews.
On the planet Australia, perhaps the most unique continent. Separated about 50 million years ago from the Praccontinent of Gondwana, has since existed in isolation.It is believed that the indigenous aborigines settled here from Asia about 50 thousand years ago.
Australia is a country of immigrants, is considered the most sparsely populated continent (2.5 people per square kilometer), the bulk of the population (85%) living in cities and descendants of immigrants. The first of those arriving on the mainland (in the 18th century) were the British; today in Australia live representatives of almost all nations.
Australia is in everyone's heart
The inhabitants of the country are very friendly, friendly with foreigners, easy to learn, cheerful; like Californians, they like to spend most of their time outdoors.
In terms of health, Australia ranks second in the world after Japan; it can also be called a country of literate people. The capital of Australia is Canberra.
In its geological age, Australia, whose nature has preserved all the signs of an ancient civilization, is the oldest continent, the lowest, most arid, and flat of all inhabited. 95% of the territory is occupied by the plains, most of which are lifeless immense deserts and swamps.At the same time, the continent is rich in groundwater, forming at a depth of 20 m to 2 km artesian basins of enormous size.
Rivers mainland australia
The largest rivers of Australia, not rich in water resources of the continent, are Darling, Murray, Fitzroy, Hunter, Bourg-dekin, feeding on the waters of the melted snow of the Australian Alps, therefore they are constantly flowing. Most rivers are filled with water from time to time: under the influence of a specific climate with its small amount of precipitation, they simply dry up.
In the headwaters of the river Australia look impressive, further downstream they lose their splendor, turning into ideally dry flat valleys, whose borders are marked by straight rows of trees. After the rains they will turn into full-flowing flows, but this is only a temporary phenomenon.
Australia: the wonderful world of flora and fauna
Australia, the nature of which is able to constantly surprise, is characterized by a unique, inherent only to her flora and fauna; its unusualness is due to an isolated existence. No wonder that out of 700 species of birds, 500 are considered endemic (typical of this particular area).
Australia's wildlife is different from any other; only in this country are found marsupial animals, of which there are 160 species: kangaroos, koalas, squirrels, anteaters, wolves and bears living in trees. The most rare representative of marsupials is the Tasmanian marsupial devil. The wild dog dingo, echidna, platypus, crocodiles, sea and river turtles, 150 species of snakes and 450 species of lizards - not a complete list of unusual inhabitants of an amazing continent.
Unusual living world of the continent
The wildlife of Australia is remarkable for its fiery lizards, which, in the event of a danger, put “hoods” on their heads, which have terrified their enemies by a sharp increase in size. Frightens off enemies with thorns growing on the body, the Australian lizard Moloch, able to change colors in accordance with environmental conditions. It is interesting to observe how the cone-tailed geckos purify their huge eyes with their tongues.
Australian frogs are just a separate topic of conversation. Having managed to adapt to the inhospitable conditions of the continent, these amphibians accumulate a body of water in the body, burrow deep into the mud, where they are able to sit waiting for precipitation for about 5 years.
The wild dog dingo is a predator and feeds on everything that comes its way: from an insect to a kangaroo. Able to attack the flocks of sheep, for which it is subjected to persecution of herdsmen. In some regions of Australia, special fences were built to prevent the spread of the wild dingo dog.
Features of the nature of Australia: it is black birch and swans. The world of insects is striking in its number, size and species. Some species of butterflies can reach in their dimensions 25 cm; by the way, they are the favorite food of the aborigines of the northern side of the continent.
The desert world of Australia gives rise to such unique specimens as the cuscus proboscis, a true gourmet of floral nectar, which he collects with special brushes arranged in the tongue.
In the coastal southern waters inhabited by whales, and in some places seals. Australia has a large number of aquatic predators: sharks (more than 70 species), sea snakes, blue octopus, sea wasp (Australian jellyfish), warty fish. An interesting feature of the Australian mainland is the absence of those animals and birds on it, which are common on other continents.
Australia, whose nature and animals can only surprise, is rich in species of birds, of which there are more than 700 species. These are kazaur, emu ostrich, cockatoo, fine-billed petrel, emu ostrich, kookabarra, lyretail.
Australia’s even hunting is carried on the yellow-crested cockatoo in Australia, because flocks of these birds destroy entire fields, depriving the country of crops.
The cassowary bird used to be widespread on the continent, but hunting for it and uprooting forests led to a sharp reduction of this species of birds. Cazuar, whose height reaches 1.5 meters with an average weight of 80 kg, usually lives in forests and feeds on berries, fruits and small animals.
Australia: nature (flora)
The flora of the mainland has more than 22 thousand species of green plants, of which 90% are endemic. However, the rapid development of civilization caused serious damage to the flora of the continent: 840 species are on the verge of complete extinction, 83 completely destroyed.
The most common plants on the island, counted in hundreds of species, are acacia and eucalyptus, the latter can reach a height of 100 meters. Such specimens have a very powerful root system, extending deep into the ground for 20-30 meters.The eucalyptus forest does not give shade due to such an interesting feature as narrow leaves angled to the sun. The slopes of the Great Dividing Range on the east and southeast side are covered with dense forests consisting of grass trees, horsetails, eucalyptus, ferns. In the south-west, along with eucalyptus trees, there are bottle trees, a feature of which is the accumulation of water in the trunk during the rainy period.
From savannah to the humid tropics
Along the coasts of the continent, deciduous and tropical forests grow, which are dominated by the same eucalyptus trees, pandanuses and palm trees; within the state, the climate changes to continental, and the nature of mainland Australia changes to savanna and light forest. Droughty areas are a savannah zone and are characterized by thickets of low-growing prickly shrubs, growing in separate groups, and grassy pastures that dry up in the hot season. Often there are areas covered with spherical gray bushes, which is the famous Spinifex - the most undemanding plant on the continent.
Australian timbers are characterized by hard wood,able to resist insects and corrosive effects of salty sea water; it does not rot and is of great value as a building material.