American military "Hummer": description, specifications, reviews
HMMWV - Army all-terrain vehicle of American origin, used by the armed forces of the United States and some other countries. The car has a high traffic, can be transported by air and parachuted. Among civilians, the car is more commonly known as the Hummer.
The history of the car "Hummer"
The militarized civilian trucks used by the US military before the 1970s ceased to satisfy the demands made on them, which required an update of the aircraft fleet. In 1977, the Lamborghini concern launched the Cheetah model, which met all the requirements of the military. In 1979, the Pentagon announced a competition for a multipurpose high-performance wheeled vehicle. In addition to AM General, invited in July of the same year, such automakers as Teledyne Continental and Chrysler Defense took part in the competition. Tests of the working model of all-terrain vehicle XM966 were conducted in 1980 in the Nevada desert.Models M1025 and M1026 were created in 1980, for which more than 500 cars were produced.
A year later, each of the models released was about 17 thousand miles. To carry out the final tests in April 1982, experimental car lots were produced. The US Army received them in full possession for five months. As a result, the contract for five years, during which 55,000 cars were to be released, was acquired by AM General in March 1983. The wholesale price of "Hammer" was 22 thousand dollars. The AM General plant in Indiana launched mass production of machines only in January 1985.
As part of the new concept of confrontation with the Russian motorized infantry, the 9th Infantry Division and Fort Lewis were equipped with test benches for the Hummer vehicles. Almost all HMMWV tests from 1985 to 1991 were conducted at a training center in Yakima, Washington, which was the main testing ground. During the invasion of American troops in Panama, the first field test of Hummer vehicles during the Just Cause operation took place.
HMMWV based range
In the US, the released model of the American military "Hummer" HMMWV has become a replacement for many SUVs and trucks.The customer of the car demanded to create a transport capable of confidently moving along the tank track, in connection with which a broad gauge and a body of considerable dimensions were developed. Initially the car was equipped with a V-shaped eight-cylinder petrol engine of 5737 cm3. Later, the Chevrolet engine was replaced with an economical and more powerful Detroit Diesel. A turbocharged version of the engine was released in 1996.
Since 1980, several versions of vehicles have been created on the basis of the Humvee: a light truck, a military vehicle, mobile air defense systems and radars, ambulances, armored and engineering vehicles - over 20 modifications.
The civilian version of the Humvee, which changed its name to the Hummer, was released in 1992 after the outbreak of the Gulf War. The rights to the Hummer brand were sold to General Motors in 1999. The agreement implied obtaining GM brand rights and selling a civilian version of an SUV, while the rights to the military “Hummer” remained with AM General.
US troops almost around the world moved on all-terrain vehicles Humvee. Coalition forces used more than 10 thousand vehicles of this brand to carry out various operations in Iraq.
Initially, the military "Hummer N1" was perceived not as a fighting vehicle, but as a means of delivering infantry to the front line. The basic version of the HMMWV, like its predecessors, did not have any protection against biological, nuclear or chemical weapons, as well as armor. Despite this, in standard operations like “Desert Storm” losses were minimal. Substantial damage was accompanied by urban clashes in the battles for Mogadishu. Most of the crews remained intact and intact due to the survivability of the chassis of the military "Hummers", despite the complete lack of protection against small arms. Since such cars were not designed for street battles, it was in such skirmishes that they began to receive the greatest damage.
After the hostilities in Somalia, there was an urgent need for a more protected vehicle. Concern AM General has released an armored model of the military "Hammer" M1114. In 1996, the production of these cars was launched, since they began to be limitedly operated in the Balkans before being sent to the Middle East. Model M1114 was improved to M998: it was equipped with a powerful turbocharged engine, enhanced suspension and air conditioning system.Steel plates and bullet-proof glass used in the design made the passenger compartment fully armored. AM General focused its production capacity on the production of these cars in connection with the increase in direct attacks and the beginning of the partisan war in Iraq.
Technical characteristics of the military "Hummer"
Despite the fact that the HMMWV has significant advantages over earlier counterparts, it is impossible to call it an ideal armored car. In this regard, in 2007, the US Marine Corps announced that it intends to replace the military "Hummer" with a minorstable MRAP machine.
The first base model was the M998, equipped with a 6.2-liter V8 diesel power unit. The second generation M998M2 was created on the M1097A2 chassis with an aluminum two- and four-seater cabin and an open platform. Diesel engine V8 Gm 6.2 liter mounted on the spar frame, along with a four-band automatic transmission and a two-stage transfer case.
Box 4L80E, installed on the "Hummer", has intermediate gear to reduce the load. It is still being mounted on light trucks Chevrolet Suburban, since it is characterized by high durability and reliability.The machine for men is equipped with Torsen cross-wheel differentials, centralized ventilation, planetary wheel gearboxes, disc braking system, independent spring suspension, radial tires, power steering, tire inflation system and a winch on request.
After the war in Iraq, the HMMWV was heavily criticized by the military. In the comments on the "Hammer" indicated that he is very vulnerable to mines laid on the roads militants. Too heavy doors turned the cabin into a trap for the soldiers, and any damage made the armored car an easy target.
Model M998 after similar criticism was equipped with a set of "increased booking." It was divided into several variants and included ballistic windscreens, armored doors equipped with bullet-proof glass, armor panels providing protection against improvised explosive devices and ballistic threats.
Disadvantages of armored versions of HMMWV
One of the main disadvantages of the Hummer armored SUVs is the desire of the doors to close in case of accidents or attacks, which turns the car interior into a trap for soldiers.
Arms are installed on the roof of the vehicle, which is controlled by a crew member, while remaining too vulnerable. This problem was solved by installing a tower or shield.
The size of the "Hammer" - another drawback, because of which it is very difficult to operate in a particular area. Transportation is complicated because of how much the military "Hummer" weighs: the gross weight of the car is 4,672 kilograms.
The civilian version of the military SUV is presented in six body engineering solutions. The model range consists of double-seat pickups VLC2 and XLC2 with an extended cab, four-seater pickups with open and closed top - HMCO, VLCO and HMC4, respectively. The latest modification is the universal four-seater HMCS. The exterior of the car is very different from the usual vehicles: angular, bulky, with clear and verified lines of the body.
Salon "Hummer" is divided into two parts gearbox. The car's classic engine, with a capacity of 170 horsepower and a volume of 6.5 liters. It also offers a gasoline equivalent of greater power - 190 horsepower, and with a smaller volume - 5.7 liters.It is usually installed on civilian versions or cars created on individual projects.
Transmission and drive
"Hummer" is equipped with an automatic four-speed transmission and two-stage dispensing. Drive an SUV permanent four-wheel drive. The car is equipped with a tire inflation system, air conditioning. The broad gauge, high ground clearance and low center of gravity ensure the stability and maneuverability of the SUV.
The internal space of the military "Hammer" is very different from the civilian analogue of the Spartan situation and the availability of the necessary equipment, including holders for automatic rifles. Most of the cabin is occupied by the transmission tunnel, the driver’s view is limited to the left mirror, since the right one is closed by the body pillar.
Distinctive features of the off-road "Hummer" - sensitivity to the management and maneuverability: on a dirt track the car easily goes into a skid without a roll to the side. The heads of passengers and the driver are protected from injury by a soft material that sheathes the ceiling of the cabin.Powerful undercarriage cope with landings from a great height, so that the SUV can overcome significant obstacles at high speed.
Difficult parts of the route are overcome in second or first gear. Equipped with a military SUV next to the lower transmission and axle differential lock, thereby providing controllability and stability of transport on fragile and slippery road surfaces.
All mechanisms and elements of the chassis recessed into the body. As a result, the bottom of the car is absolutely flat, which allows it to easily overcome steep slopes. Under the hood is hidden air intake, which does not allow water to penetrate into the engine.
According to the results of military operations conducted in the territory of Afghanistan and Iraq, the command of US weapons decided to replace the HMMWV SUV. The experts made a decision on which the car did not meet the required conditions, which is why outdated functional qualities led to large losses on the battlefield. The reason is that the fire of grenade launchers and machine guns easily penetrates through the Hummer saloon.Initially, the car was designed as a vehicle capable of protecting the crew from hitting fragments, but not as a machine designed for combat operations on the front lines. Crews "Hummers" had to use in Afghanistan and Iraq, homemade armor from sheets of Kevlar, which did not provide sufficient protection.
The military command also demanded that military off-road vehicles be adapted for movement in the dark without using lighting equipment. The designers were given the task to equip the new version of army vehicles with night vision devices and infrared headlights. To drive such a machine, the driver must at high speed without errors.
For this purpose, a competitive program for the development of light tactical vehicles was launched.
The result of the competitive program was the release of the JLTV model, which was to replace the military "Hummer", which served for more than thirty years the US Armed Forces. The producer who wins the tender will be awarded a contract worth over twenty billion dollars, and three companies that reach the final will receive awards totaling one hundred sixty-six million.
All the old "Hummers", which are in service with the US Army, will not be written off at once: most likely, several hundred thousand HMMWV SUVs will replace the new models. The new transport will be improved in the field of running, cargo and combat qualities.
A full renewal of the fleet of the US Armed Forces will not happen soon and will require investing large amounts of money into the development of armored light equipment.
Hummer SUV Cost
To date, the price of "Hummers" in the secondary car market varies from 2 to 6 million rubles. Initially, the H1 car in the basic configuration could be purchased for 140 thousand dollars, but the cost has decreased over time. The price for civilian versions is almost the same, but it depends on the wishes of the client. Custom-made models cost a lot more than standard versions of Hummer SUVs.