Alkaline batteries: what they are
In this age of electrification, it is difficult to imagine life without technology. But they do not work on emptiness, they need their own specific "food". And it is good if there is a connection to the power grid. But what to do when there is no access to the source of support or is it constantly inefficient to use it? In such cases, save batteries and rechargeable batteries. About one of them and will be a conversation in the framework of the article.
What are alkaline batteries
What is it and what is used in its manufacture? An alkaline battery is an electrical energy storage device. In it, the active mass of the negative electrode is a plate made of porous cadmium or iron. As a positive, a nickel skeleton is used, which fills it with trivalent oxide of the same material. The electrolyte is a 20% potassium hydroxide solution. Electrical properties are manifested due to the conversion of energy from electrical to chemical and vice versa.The first process is called charging. The second is detente. Charging alkaline batteries does not cause problems if you use quality products to keep batteries in working condition.
How does this energy store work? In general terms, it was outlined, let's stop in more detail. The positive electrode, when it is charged, is a nickel oxide hydrate with additives of barium oxide and graphite. The latter of them increases the electrical conductivity. Barium oxide has a positive effect on the life of the electrode. The negative is mainly composed of powdered iron. It can also be its oxides, nickel sulphate and cadmium powder. The electrolyte is caustic potassium, which is mixed with lithium monohydrate (with a calculation of 20-30 grams per liter). Thanks to this impurity increases the overall battery life. Here is an alkaline battery device and it provides the characteristics that make this type of energy source popular.
If we talk about what the industry supplies under the brand name "alkaline batteries", then first of all it is necessary to talk about:
- Nickel-iron.In these batteries, the positive armor plates are located between 2 negative ones.
- Nickel-cadmium. In these batteries, the negative plates are located between 2 positive ones.
In both of them, the electrodes are made in the form of frames of steel. In their grooves were pressed packages filled with active mass. They themselves are made of nickel-plated tin, in which there are many different small holes through which the contents interact with the electrolyte. To eliminate the possibility of a short circuit between the plates, separators are installed, which are made in the form of PVC grids or ebonite rods. There are features with the body. So that the plate and the electrolyte do not damage it, it is made of nickel-plated tin. For the exit of gases, a welded cap is used, in which there are holes.
- When choosing, it was important to place that the batteries will occupy. Alkaline batteries are ideal for all conditions, both in voltage and compactness.
- Batteries of this type are distinguished by reliability of work, long service life and are recommended to all who need to work with them often.
Features of operation
What needs to be done during operation? Follow a set of rules, and the risk of problems will be minimal:
- Periodically check electrolyte level and battery charge.
- Keep clean.
- Charge the batteries periodically, even if you do not use them.
About alkaline batteries can be said that they are very resistant to damage, but it is better to ensure that nothing happens to them. Also, recharging when not in use should be done about once a year (about 25-30% of the charge is dissipated during this time).