11 causes of dry mouth and simple methods for its removal
Dry mouth in medicine is called xerotomy. In most cases, this condition accompanies other diseases that lead to impaired production and secretion of saliva, as a result of which there is a feeling of dry mouth. Therefore, it will be possible to get rid of this unpleasant feeling only when the reason for its appearance is eliminated.
Xerotomy brings discomfort to patients, violates their sleep and their usual way of life. Given the importance of this issue, we want to tell you what dry mouth is, what are its causes and what diseases can trigger this symptom.
Dry mouth: causes
- Violation of nasal breathing.Dryness in the mouth in the morning causes may be different, ranging from night snoring and ending with inflammation of the sinuses. Not rarely, a feeling of dryness in the mouth after sleep is caused by the curvature of the nasal septum and adenoids.In addition, dry mouth at night can disturb allergy sufferers who suffer from pollinosis or runny nose of an allergic nature.
- Side effect of drugs.In the instructions of many drugs can be found xerostomia in the list of side effects. The feeling of dryness in the mouth may disturb during the day, during sleep, in the morning or constantly. This side effect is characteristic of antibiotics, analgesics, antidepressants, muscle relaxants, as well as anti-fungicidal, sedative, anti-allergic, anti-diarrheal and anti-emetic drugs.
- Infectious diseases.Dry mouth and throat very often appears in patients with infectious diseases occurring with fever and severe intoxication, such as SARS, pharyngitis or tonsillitis. Diseases of the salivary glands of an infectious nature, which violate the formation and outflow of saliva (parotitis), can also lead to xerotomy.
- Diseases of a systemic nature.For diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's disease, affection of the external secretion glands (salivary, lacrimal, Bartholin, etc.) is characteristic, as a result of which patients experience dry mouth, eyes and vagina.
- Diseases of the internal organs.Constant dry mouth and thirst is one of the signs of diabetes. Dizziness and dry mouth occur in hypotension, ischemic stroke, anemia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.
- Chemotherapy.Almost all chemotherapy drugs for cancer treatment reduce the secretion of saliva, as a result of which patients dry out a lot.
- Radiation therapy.Thirst and dry mouth are also not uncommon in the treatment of malignant tumors with ionizing radiation.
- Traumatic brain injury.In case of a head injury, damage to the center responsible for the work of the salivary glands or the most salivary glands can occur. In this case, besides the symptoms of head injury, patients will be bothered by a feeling of dry mouth and thirst.
- Dehydration.All diseases that are accompanied by fever, excessive sweating, vomiting or diarrhea, contribute to the removal of fluid from the body and, accordingly, dry mouth.
- Iatrogenic damage to the salivary glands.During dental procedures or surgical interventions on the head, the salivary glands can be damaged, leading to disruption of their work.
- Smoking.In tobacco smoke contains a large number of substances that irritate the oral mucosa.
Very rarely xerotomy is the only sign of the disease. Almost always this unpleasant feeling is combined with symptoms such as thirst, bitterness and burning sensation in the mouth, plaque on the tongue, weakness, dizziness, etc. We suggest to consider the most common situations when dry mouth bothers patients in combination with other symptoms.
Bitterness, metallic taste, dry mouth and white plaque on the tongue: causes and treatment
Metallic taste, dryness and bitterness in the mouth with a white coating on the tonguemost often observed in the following diseases:
- biliary dyskinesia;
- gingivitis (inflammation of the gums);
- neurosis and psychosis;
- antibiotic treatment;
- hyperfunction of the thyroid gland;
- peptic ulcer and others.
In addition to dryness and bitterness in the mouth, patients may be disturbed by a metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain or right upper quadrant, heartburn, and other symptoms that are characteristic of diseases of the digestive system.
The choice of treatment methods for dry mouth directly depends on the disease that caused this symptom.
First of all, what needs to be done is to turn to a general practitioner or a gastroenterologist, who, after conducting a series of studies, will make an accurate diagnosis and give therapeutic recommendations.
Depending on the causes of dryness and bitterness in the mouthThe following groups of drugs can be prescribed:
- antacids, which are shown in gastritis with acidity and gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer. The drugs of choice can be Omeprazole, Pantoprazole, Maalox and Almagel;
- Probiotics are prescribed in combination with antibiotics to eliminate or prevent the development of dysbiosis, which can cause bitterness and dry mouth. Such drugs as Laktovit, Linex, Symbiter and others are considered the most effective;
- antibacterial drugs are used for gingivitis, peptic ulcer disease, inflammation of the gallbladder. In case of inflammation of the gums, mouth rinsing with antiseptics (Chlorhexidine) and gels (Metragil-Dent) are prescribed. For the treatment of gastric ulcer using drugs that destroy the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (Metronidazole, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin);
- multivitamin complexes;
- sedatives (glycine, valerian extract) and others.
May also beused traditional medicine, namely:
- regular use of lemon juice, diluted with water;
- taking infusions and decoctions of herbs that enhance the production of saliva (coltsfoot, thermopsis, elecampane, and others);
- chewing clove or cinnamon.
In addition to medication,The following guidelines should be followed:
- observe oral hygiene (brush teeth, use mouthwash balsam, dental floss, brush tongue, etc.);
- stop smoking;
- refuse to drink alcohol;
- drink at least six glasses of pure water per day;
- limit the proportion of foods that increase biliary excretion in the diet;
- exclude from the menu products containing preservatives and dyes;
- limit stress;
- eat 5-6 times a day in small portions and not pass.
Dry mouth at night: causes and remedies
Most often it dries in the mouth during sleep in violation of nasal breathing and dry air in the room.
In a child, the most common disease that leads to a violation of nasal breathing is adenoid hypertrophy. In this case, the child should be consulted with an otolaryngologist.In most cases, surgical removal of enlarged adenoids is indicated.
If the feeling of dryness in the mouth at night is caused by dry air in the room, it is necessary to air before bedtime and use air humidifiers.
In case of a cold, drops and sprays are used, which reduce swelling of the nasal mucosa and thin the exudate. Nok Spray, Nazivin, Otrivin and others can be used for this purpose. In allergic rhinitis, anti-allergic drugs are indicated, such as Tavegil, Citrine, Suprastin.
Dry mouth for diabetes mellitus: control methods
In diabetes, severe dry mouth is combined with a feeling of thirst and frequent urination. This combination of symptoms is explained by the active elimination of glucose from the body, which is associated with water molecules, as a result of which the dehydration of the organism develops.
If you suspect diabetes, you must consult an endocrinologist and pass a blood test for sugar. If the disease is confirmed, depending on the type of diabetes mellitus, treatment is prescribed, which may consist of insulin injections or taking sugar-reducing drugs, with a mandatory diet.
Dry mouth for Sjogren syndrome
Sjogren's syndrome is also called "dry disease" because the basis of this disease is a violation of the glands of exocrine secretion, primarily salivary and lacrimal. More often, women over 50 years old are ill with Sjogren's syndrome.
The main symptoms of "dry disease" are the following:
- dry mouth, which is felt constantly;
- difficulty chewing and swallowing food;
- dry eye mucosa;
- dry skin;
- dry genital mucosa;
- feeling of "sand in the eyes";
- burning, itching, and pain in the eyes;
- lip cracks;
- angular stomatitis and others.
Symptomatic remedies such as artificial tears and saliva, lubricants, moisturizing lotions and creams are used to treat Sjogren's disease. To get rid of dry mouth, it is recommended to drink enough water, rinse your mouth with water many times a day, give preference to liquid food, etc.
Dry mouth in women
The most common cause of dry mouth in women is premenopause and menopause.
Menopause is characterized not only by dry mouth, but also rapid heartbeat, hot flashes, vaginal mucosa dryness, dizziness, headaches, and blood pressure instability.
A balanced diet, adequate drinking regime, walks in the fresh air, yoga and body flex will help to cope with the symptoms of menopause. If necessary, the gynecologist may prescribe drugs that contain female hormones, multivitamins, sedatives and other means that normalize the woman’s well-being.
As a result, we can conclude that dry mouth almost always appears on the background of other diseases, the poet and treatment should be, first of all, etiological. It is also important to normalize the daily regimen in the fight against xerostomia, to lead a healthy and active lifestyle, to eat right, to take care of the oral cavity, to drink enough water.